History-Social Science Content Standards

Learning and Working Now and Long Ago
Students in kindergarten are introduced to basic spatial, temporal, and causal relationships, emphasizing the geographic and historical connections between the world today and the world long ago. The stories of ordinary and extraordinary people help describe the range and continuity of human experience and introduce the concepts of courage, self-control, justice, heroism, leadership, deliberation, and individual responsibility. Historical empathy for how people lived and worked long ago reinforces the concept of civic behavior: how we interact respectfully with each other, following rules, and respecting the rights of others.
K.1 Students understand that being a good citizen involves acting in certain ways.
1.    Follow rules, such as sharing and taking turns, and know the consequences of breaking them.
2.    Learn examples of honesty, courage, determination, individual responsibility, and patriotism in American and world history from stories and folklore.
3.    Know beliefs and related behaviors of characters in stories from times past and understand the consequences of the characters' actions.
K.2 Students recognize national and state symbols and icons such as the national and state flags, the bald eagle, and the Statue of Liberty.
K.3 Students match simple descriptions of work that people do and the names of related jobs at the school, in the local community, and from historical accounts.
K.4 Students compare and contrast the locations of people, places, and environments and describe their characteristics.
1.    Determine the relative locations of objects using the terms near/far, left/right, and behind/in front.
2.    Distinguish between land and water on maps and globes and locate general areas referenced in historical legends and stories.
3.    Identify traffic symbols and map symbols (e.g., those for land, water, roads, cities).
4.    Construct maps and models of neighborhoods, incorporating such structures as police and fire stations, airports, banks, hospitals, supermarkets, harbors, schools, homes, places of worship, and transportation lines.
5.    Demonstrate familiarity with the school's layout, environs, and the jobs people do there.
K.5 Students put events in temporal order using a calendar, placing days, weeks, and months in proper order.
K.6 Students understand that history relates to events, people, and places of other times.
1.    Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in, commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the basis for the events (e.g., Thanksgiving, Independence Day, Washington's and Lincoln's Birthdays, Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Memorial Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day).
2.    Know the triumphs in American legends and historical accounts through the stories of such people as Pocahontas, George Washington, Booker T. Washington, Daniel Boone, and Benjamin Franklin.
3.    Understand how people lived in earlier times and how their lives would be different today (e.g., getting water from a well, growing food, making clothing, having fun, forming organizations, living by rules and laws).

Grade One

History-Social Science Content Standards.

A Child's Place in Time and Space
Students in grade one continue a more detailed treatment of the broad concepts of rights and responsibilities in the contemporary world. The classroom serves as a microcosm of society in which decisions are made with respect for individual responsibility, for other people, and for the rules by which we all must live: fair play, good sportsmanship, and respect for the rights and opinions of others. Students examine the geographic and economic aspects of life in their own neighborhoods and compare them to those of people long ago. Students explore the varied backgrounds of American citizens and learn about the symbols, icons, and songs that reflect our common heritage.
1.1 Students describe the rights and individual responsibilities of citizenship.
1.    Understand the rule-making process in a direct democracy (everyone votes on the rules) and in a representative democracy (an elected group of people makes the rules), giving examples of both systems in their classroom, school, and community.
2.    Understand the elements of fair play and good sportsmanship, respect for the rights and opinions of others, and respect for rules by which we live, including the meaning of the "Golden Rule."
1.2 Students compare and contrast the absolute and relative locations of places and people and describe the physical and/ or human characteristics of places.
1.    Locate on maps and globes their local community, California, the United States, the seven continents, and the four oceans.
2.    Compare the information that can be derived from a three-dimensional model to the information that can be derived from a picture of the same location.
3.    Construct a simple map, using cardinal directions and map symbols.
4.    Describe how location, weather, and physical environment affect the way people live, including the effects on their food, clothing, shelter, transportation, and recreation.
1.3 Students know and understand the symbols, icons, and traditions of the United States that provide continuity and a sense of community across time.
1.    Recite the Pledge of Allegiance and sing songs that express American ideals (e.g., "America").
2.    Understand the significance of our national holidays and the heroism and achievements of the people associated with them.
3.    Identify American symbols, landmarks, and essential documents, such as the flag, bald eagle, Statue of Liberty, U.S. Constitution, and Declaration of Independence, and know the people and events associated with them.

1.4 Students compare and contrast everyday life in different times and places around the world and recognize that some aspects of people, places, and things change over time while others stay the same.
1.    Examine the structure of schools and communities in the past.
2.    Study transportation methods of earlier days.
3.    Recognize similarities and differences of earlier generations in such areas as work (inside and outside the home), dress, manners, stories, games, and festivals, drawing from biographies, oral histories, and folklore.
1.5 Students describe the human characteristics of familiar places and the varied backgrounds of American citizens and residents in those places.
1.    Recognize the ways in which they are all part of the same community, sharing principles, goals, and traditions despite their varied ancestry; the forms of diversity in their school and community; and the benefits and challenges of a diverse population.
2.    Understand the ways in which American Indians and immigrants have helped define Californian and American culture.
3.    Compare the beliefs, customs, ceremonies, traditions, and social practices of the varied cultures, drawing from folklore.
1. 6 Students understand basic economic concepts and the role of individual choice in a free-market economy.
1.    Understand the concept of exchange and the use of money to purchase goods and services.
2.    Identify the specialized work that people do to manufacture, transport, and market goods and services and the contributions of those who work in the home.

Grade Two

History-Social Science Content Standards.

People Who Make a Difference
Students in grade two explore the lives of actual people who make a difference in their everyday lives and learn the stories of extraordinary people from history whose achievements have touched them, directly or indirectly. The study of contemporary people who supply goods and services aids in understanding the complex interdependence in our free-market system.
2.1 Students differentiate between things that happened long ago and things that happened yesterday.
1.    Trace the history of a family through the use of primary and secondary sources, including artifacts, photographs, interviews, and documents.
2.    Compare and contrast their daily lives with those of their parents, grandparents, and/or guardians.
3.    Place important events in their lives in the order in which they occurred (e.g., on a time line or storyboard).
2.2 Students demonstrate map skills by describing the absolute and relative locations of people, places, and environments.
1.    Locate on a simple letter-number grid system the specific locations and geographic features in their neighborhood or community (e.g., map of the classroom, the school).
2.    Label from memory a simple map of the North American continent, including the countries, oceans, Great Lakes, major rivers, and mountain ranges. Identify the essential map elements: title, legend, directional indicator, scale, and date.
3.    Locate on a map where their ancestors live (d), telling when the family moved to the local community and how and why they made the trip.
4.    Compare and contrast basic land use in urban, suburban, and rural environments in California.
2.3 Students explain governmental institutions and practices in the United States and other countries.
1.    Explain how the United States and other countries make laws, carry out laws, determine whether laws have been violated, and punish wrongdoers.
2.    Describe the ways in which groups and nations interact with one another to try to resolve problems in such areas as trade, cultural contacts, treaties, diplomacy, and military force.
2.4 Students understand basic economic concepts and their individual roles in the economy and demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills.
1.    Describe food production and consumption long ago and today, including the roles of farmers, processors, distributors, weather, and land and water resources.
2.    Understand the role and interdependence of buyers (consumers) and sellers (producers) of goods and services.
3.    Understand how limits on resources affect production and consumption (what to produce and what to consume).
2.5 Students understand the importance of individual action and character and explain how heroes from long ago and the recent past have made a difference in others' lives (e.g., from biographies of Abraham Lincoln, Louis Pasteur, Sitting Bull, George Washington Carver, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Golda Meir, Jackie Robinson, Sally Ride).

Grade Three

History-Social Science Content Standards.

Continuity and Change
Students in grade three learn more about our connections to the past and the ways in which particularly local, but also regional and national, government and traditions have developed and left their marks on current society, providing common memories. Emphasis is on the physical and cultural landscape of California, including the study of American Indians, the subsequent arrival of immigrants, and the impact they have had in forming the character of our contemporary society.
3.1 Students describe the physical and human geography and use maps, tables, graphs, photographs, and charts to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial context.
1.    Identify geographical features in their local region (e.g., deserts, mountains, valleys, hills, coastal areas, oceans, lakes).
2.    Trace the ways in which people have used the resources of the local region and modified the physical environment (e.g., a dam constructed upstream changed a river or coastline).
3.2 Students describe the American Indian nations in their local region long ago and in the recent past.
1.    Describe national identities, religious beliefs, customs, and various folklore traditions.
2.    Discuss the ways in which physical geography, including climate, influenced how the local Indian nations adapted to their natural environment (e.g., how they obtained food, clothing, tools).
3.    Describe the economy and systems of government, particularly those with tribal constitutions, and their relationship to federal and state governments.
4.    Discuss the interaction of new settlers with the already established Indians of the region.
3.3 Students draw from historical and community resources to organize the sequence of local historical events and describe how each period of settlement left its mark on the land.
1.    Research the explorers who visited here, the newcomers who settled here, and the people who continue to come to the region, including their cultural and religious traditions and contributions.
2.    Describe the economies established by settlers and their influence on the present-day economy, with emphasis on the importance of private property and entrepreneurship.
3.    Trace why their community was established, how individuals and families contributed to its founding and development, and how the community has changed over time, drawing on maps, photographs, oral histories, letters, newspapers, and other primary sources.

3.4 Students understand the role of rules and laws in our daily lives and the basic structure of the U.S. government.
1.    Determine the reasons for rules, laws, and the U.S. Constitution; the role of citizenship in the promotion of rules and laws; and the consequences for people who violate rules and laws.
2.    Discuss the importance of public virtue and the role of citizens, including how to participate in a classroom, in the community, and in civic life.
3.    Know the histories of important local and national landmarks, symbols, and essential documents that create a sense of community among citizens and exemplify cherished ideals (e.g., the U.S. flag, the bald eagle, the Statue of Liberty, the U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Capitol).
4.    Understand the three branches of government, with an emphasis on local government.
5.    Describe the ways in which California, the other states, and sovereign American Indian tribes contribute to the making of our nation and participate in the federal system of government.
6.    Describe the lives of American heroes who took risks to secure our freedoms (e.g., Anne Hutchinson, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, Martin Luther King, Jr.).
3.5 Students demonstrate basic economic reasoning skills and an understanding of the economy of the local region.
1.    Describe the ways in which local producers have used and are using natural resources, human resources, and capital resources to produce goods and services in the past and the present.
2.    Understand that some goods are made locally, some elsewhere in the United States, and some abroad.
3.    Understand that individual economic choices involve trade-offs and the evaluation of benefits and costs.
4.    Discuss the relationship of students' "work" in school and their personal human capital.

Grade Four
History-Social Science Content Standards.

California: A Changing State
Students learn the story of their home state, unique in American history in terms of its vast and varied geography, its many waves of immigration beginning with pre-Columbian societies, its continuous diversity, economic energy, and rapid growth. In addition to the specific treatment of milestones in California history, students examine the state in the context of the rest of the nation, with an emphasis on the U.S. Constitution and the relationship between state and federal government.
4.1 Students demonstrate an understanding of the physical and human geographic features that define places and regions in California.
1.    Explain and use the coordinate grid system of latitude and longitude to determine the absolute locations of places in California and on Earth.
2.    Distinguish between the North and South Poles; the equator and the prime meridian; the tropics; and the hemispheres, using coordinates to plot locations.
3.    Identify the state capital and describe the various regions of California, including how their characteristics and physical environments (e.g., water, landforms, vegetation, climate) affect human activity.
4.    Identify the locations of the Pacific Ocean, rivers, valleys, and mountain passes and explain their effects on the growth of towns.
5.    Use maps, charts, and pictures to describe how communities in California vary in land use, vegetation, wildlife, climate, population density, architecture, services, and transportation.
4.2 Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
1.    Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
2.    identify the early land and sea routes to, and European settlements in, California with a focus on the exploration of the North Pacific (e.g., by Captain James Cook, Vitus Bering, Juan Cabrillo), noting especially the importance of mountains, deserts, ocean currents, and wind patterns.
3.    Describe the Spanish exploration and colonization of California, including the relationships among soldiers, missionaries, and Indians (e.g., Juan Crespi, Junipero Serra, Gaspar de Portola).
4.    Describe the mapping of, geographic basis of, and economic factors in the placement and function of the Spanish missions; and understand how the mission system expanded the influence of Spain and Catholicism throughout New Spain and Latin America.
5.    Describe the daily lives of the people, native and nonnative, who occupied the presidios, missions, ranchos, and pueblos.
6.    Discuss the role of the Franciscans in changing the economy of California from a hunter-gatherer economy to an agricultural economy.
7.    Describe the effects of the Mexican War for Independence on Alta California, including its effects on the territorial boundaries of North America.
8.    Discuss the period of Mexican rule in California and its attributes, including land grants, secularization of the missions, and the rise of the rancho economy.
4.3      Students explain the economic, social, and political life in California from the establishment of the Bear Flag Republic through the Mexican-American War, the Gold Rush, and the granting of statehood.
1.    Identify the locations of Mexican settlements in California and those of other settlements, including Fort Ross and Sutter's Fort.
2.    Compare how and why people traveled to California and the routes they traveled (e.g., James Beckwourth, John Bidwell, John C. Fremont, Pio Pico).
3.    Analyze the effects of the Gold Rush on settlements, daily life, politics, and the physical environment (e.g., using biographies of John Sutter, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Louise Clapp).
4.    Study the lives of women who helped build early California (e.g., Biddy Mason).
5.    Discuss how California became a state and how its new government differed from those during the Spanish and Mexican periods.
4.4 Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s.
1.    Understand the story and lasting influence of the Pony Express, Overland Mail Service, Western Union, and the building of the transcontinental railroad, including the contributions of Chinese workers to its construction.
2.    Explain how the Gold Rush transformed the economy of California, including the types of products produced and consumed, changes in towns (e.g., Sacramento, San Francisco), and economic conflicts between diverse groups of people.
3.    Discuss immigration and migration to California between 1850 and 1900, including the diverse composition of those who came; the countries of origin and their relative locations; and conflicts and accords among the diverse groups (e.g., the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act).
4.    Describe rapid American immigration, internal migration, settlement, and the growth of towns and cities (e.g., Los Angeles).
5.    Discuss the effects of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl, and World War II on California.
6.    Describe the development and locations of new industries since the nineteenth century, such as the aerospace industry, electronics industry, large-scale commercial agriculture and irrigation projects, the oil and automobile industries, communications and defense industries, and important trade links with the Pacific Basin.
7.    Trace the evolution of California's water system into a network of dams, aqueducts, and reservoirs.
8.    Describe the history and development of California's public education system, including universities and community colleges.
9.    Analyze the impact of twentieth-century Californians on the nation's artistic and cultural development, including the rise of the entertainment industry (e.g., Louis B. Meyer, Walt Disney, John Steinbeck, Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange, John Wayne).
4.5 Students understand the structures, functions, and powers of the local, state, and federal governments as described in the U.S. Constitution.
1.    Discuss what the U.S. Constitution is and why it is important (i.e., a written document that defines the structure and purpose of the U.S. government and describes the shared powers of federal, state, and local governments).
2.    Understand the purpose of the California Constitution, its key principles, and its relationship to the U.S. Constitution.
3.    Describe the similarities (e.g., written documents, rule of law, consent of the governed, three separate branches) and differences (e.g., scope of jurisdiction, limits on government powers, use of the military) among federal, state, and local governments.
4.    Explain the structures and functions of state governments, including the roles and responsibilities of their elected officials.
5.    Describe the components of California's governance structure (e.g., cities and towns, Indian rancherias and reservations, counties, school districts).