STANDARD 2.6. Health education--Candidates know, understand, and use the major concepts in the subject matter of health education to create opportunities for student development and practice of skills that contribute to good health;

STANDARD 2.6.  Health education--Candidates know, understand, and use the major concepts in the subject matter of health education to create opportunities for student development and practice of skills that contribute to good health;


Supporting explanation

Candidates understand the foundations of good health, including the structure and function of the body and its systems and the importance of physical fitness and sound nutrition.  They help students understand the benefits of a healthy lifestyle for themselves and others as well as the dangers of diseases and activities that may contribute to disease. Teacher candidates are alert to major health issues concerning children and the social forces that affect them, and of the need to impart information on these issues sensitively.  They address issues in ways that help students recognize potentially dangerous situations, clarify misconceptions, and find reliable sources of information.    

Source document for health education

National Health Education Standards; Achieving Health Literacy, Joint Committee on National Health Education Standards (Association for the Advancement of Health Education, American School Health Association, American Public Health Association), American Cancer Society, 1995



STANDARD 2.7.  Physical education—Candidates know, understand, and use—as appropriate to their own understanding and skills—human movement and physical activity as central elements to foster active, healthy life styles and enhanced quality of life for elementary students;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand physical education content relevant to the development of physically educated individuals.  They structure learning activities to ensure that students demonstrate competence in many movement forms, and can apply movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.  Teacher candidates know that physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society and recognize the critical importance of physically active life styles for all students.  They help students develop knowledge and skills necessary to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness.  Teacher candidates appreciate the intrinsic values and benefits associated with physical activity.  They are able to structure movement experiences that foster opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction, and that elicit responsible personal and social behavior and respect for individual differences among people in physical activity.

Source documents for physical education

Moving Into the Future; National Standards for Physical Education, National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 1995

National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers, Beginning Teacher Standards Task Force of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education, the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 1995


STANDARD 2.8.  Connections across the curriculum--Candidates know, understand, and use the connections among concepts, procedures, and applications from content areas to motivate elementary students, build understanding, and encourage the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and ideas to real world issues.

Supporting explanation

In their instruction, candidates make connections across the disciplines and draw on their knowledge of developmental stages to motivate students, build understanding, and encourage the application of knowledge, skills, and ideas to lives of elementary students across fields of knowledge and in real world situations.  Candidates help elementary students learn the power of multiple perspectives to understand complex issues.  Through personal actions and teaching, they demonstrate scholarly habits of mind, including: (1) a desire to know, (2) constructive questioning, (3) use of information and systematic data, (4) acceptance of ambiguity where it exists, (5) willingness to modify explanations, (6) a cooperative manner in responding to questions and solving problems, (7) respect for reason, imagination, and creativity and (8) honesty.



INSTRUCTION


STANDARD 3.1.  Integrating and applying knowledge for instruction—Candidates plan and implement instruction based on knowledge of students, learning theory, subject matter, curricular goals, and community;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand learning theory, subjects taught in elementary schools (described in sections 2a through 2i of the Program Standards), curriculum development, and student development and know how to use this understanding in planning instruction to meet curriculum goals.  They are able to help students appreciate and be engaged in the subject matter.  Candidates select and create learning experiences that are appropriate for curriculum goals, meaningful to elementary students, and based upon principles of effective teaching (e.g. that activate students' prior knowledge, anticipate preconceptions, encourage exploration and problem-solving, and build new skills on those previously acquired).  They use a variety of resources, including technology and textbooks, and look beyond their classroom to determine how numerous information resources in both print and electronic form might benefit their students.  Candidates understand and use appropriate technology to help students become capable technology users through communication; through access, management, analysis and problem solving with information; and through collaborative and self-directed learning.  They collaborate with specialists to promote learning in all areas of the curriculum for all elementary students.

Source documents for planning and implementing instruction

Draft Standards for Teachers of Middle Childhood, Indiana Professional Standards Board, 1996

National Educational Technology Standards for Students, National Educational Technology Standards Project, International Society for Technology in Education, 1998


STANDARD 3.2.  Adaptation to diverse students—Candidates understand how elementary students differ in their development and approaches to learning, and create instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse students;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand and can identify differences in approaches to learning and performance, including different learning styles, and ways students demonstrate learning. They understand how elementary students' learning is influenced by individual experiences, talents, disabilities, and prior learning, as well as language, culture, family, and community values.  Candidates know how to seek assistance and guidance from specialists and other resources to address elementary students’ exceptional learning needs and understand the importance of collaboration with specialists and families.  They identify and design instruction appropriate to K-6 students' levels of development, learning styles, strengths, and needs, using teaching approaches that are sensitive to the multiple experiences of students.  Candidates plan instructional tasks and activities appropriate to the needs of students who are culturally diverse and those with exceptional learning needs in elementary schools.  They are able to apply knowledge of the richness of contributions from diverse cultures to each content area studied by elementary students.


STANDARD 3.3.  Development of critical thinking, problem solving and performance skills—Candidates understand and use a variety of teaching strategies that encourage elementary students' development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance skills;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand cognitive processes associated with various kinds of learning and how these processes can be stimulated.  They also understand principles and techniques, advantages and limitations, associated with appropriate teaching strategies (e.g. cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, whole group discussion, independent study, interdisciplinary instruction).  Candidates know how to enhance learning through use of a wide variety of materials as well as collaboration with specialists, other colleagues, and technological resources, and through multiple teaching and learning strategies that will promote development of critical thinking, problem solving, and performance capabilities.


STANDARD 3.4.  Active engagement in learning—Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior among students at the K-6 level to foster active engagement in learning, self motivation, and positive social interaction and to create supportive learning environments;

Supporting explanation

Teacher candidates understand principles of effective classroom management as well as human motivation and behavior from the foundational sciences of psychology, anthropology, and sociology.  They use a range of strategies and can collaborate with specialists to promote positive relationships, cooperation, conflict resolution, and purposeful learning in the classroom.  They create learning communities in which elementary students assume responsibility for themselves and one another, participate in decisionmaking, work collaboratively and independently, and engage in purposeful learning activities.  They understand and use appropriate and effective interpersonal and small group communication techniques to create an effective learning environment.


STANDARD 3.5.  Communication to foster learning—Candidates use their knowledge and understanding of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the elementary classroom.

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand communication theory, language development, and the role of language in learning among elementary students, and they also understand how cultural and gender differences can affect communication in the classroom.  They model effective communication strategies in conveying ideas and information and in asking questions (e.g. monitoring the effects of messages; restating ideas and drawing connections; using visual, aural, and kinesthetic cues; being sensitive to nonverbal cues given and received). They use oral and written discourse between themselves and their students, and among students, to develop and extend elementary students' understanding of subject matter.  Candidates know how to use a variety of media communication tools, including audio-visual aids and computer-based technologies, to enrich learning opportunities.



ASSESSMENT

STANDARD 4.  Assessment for instruction—Candidates know, understand, and use formal and informal assessment strategies to plan, evaluate, and strengthen instruction that will promote continuous intellectual, social, emotional, and physical development of each elementary student.

Supporting explanation

Candidates know that assessment is an essential and integral part of instruction.  It defines the beginning point; helps identify objectives, materials and effective teaching methods or techniques; and informs the need to re-teach or adapt instruction.  They understand the characteristics, uses, advantages, and limitations of different types of assessment appropriate for evaluating how K-6 students learn, what they know, and what they are able to do in each subject area.  Candidates recognize that many different assessment tools and strategies, accurately and systematically used, are necessary for monitoring and promoting learning for each student.  Elementary teacher candidates appropriately use a variety of formal and informal assessment techniques (e.g. observation, portfolios of elementary student work, teacher-made tests, performance tasks, projects, student self-assessments, peer assessment, and standardized tests) to enhance their knowledge of individual students, evaluate students' progress and performances, modify teaching and learning strategies, and collaborate with specialists on accommodating the needs of students with exceptionalities.  Candidates use formative and summative assessments to determine student understanding of each subject area and take care to align assessments with instructional practice.  They are aware that technology can facilitate appropriate forms of assessment and provide evidence across multiple dimensions of student performance.  They use technology to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of assessment processes and in management of instruction.  Candidates also monitor their own teaching strategies and behavior in relation to student success, modifying plans and instructional approaches accordingly.

Source document for assessment

Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement in Education, and National Education Association, 1990



PROFESSIONALISM

STANDARD 5.1.  Practices and behaviors of developing career teachers—Candidates understand and apply practices and behaviors that are characteristic of developing career teachers;

Supporting explanation

While synthesis of knowledge is a lifetime process for a professional, by the end of teacher preparation candidates ready to enter the classroom as elementary generalist teachers should be: [1] working independently on a variety of disciplinary and pedagogical problems and responsibilities by combining as appropriate their knowledge and skills in (a) child development; (b) English language arts, science, mathematics, social studies, the arts, health and physical education, (c) instructional technique and learning technologies, and (d) assessment; [2] focusing and defending independent analyses and value judgments about disciplinary content and teaching methodologies, their various potential relationships, and their applications to specific circumstances; [3] acquiring the intellectual tools to work with evolving issues and conditions as time and situations change, including the ability to make wise decisions according to time, place, and population; [4] identifying, accessing, and using technology-based resources in support of their continuing professional development; [5] demonstrating awareness of and commitment to the profession's codes of ethical conduct;  and [6] understanding basic interrelationships and interdependencies among the various professions and activities that constitute the disciplines, content, and processes of elementary education.

Source documents for professional competence

Code of Ethics of the Education Profession, National Education Association Representative Assembly, adopted in 1975

Code of Ethics, American Federation of Teachers, adopted in 1971

Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment, S. Feeney and K. Kipnis, NAEYC, 1992


STANDARD 5.2.  Reflection and evaluation—Candidates are aware of and reflect on their practice in light of research on teaching and resources available for professional learning; they continually evaluate the effects of their professional decisions and actions on students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community and actively seek out opportunities to grow professionally;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand methods of inquiry that provide them with a variety of self-assessment and problem solving strategies for reflecting on their practice, its influences on K-6 students' growth and learning, and the complex interactions between them.  They know major areas of research on teaching and of resources available for professional learning (e.g. professional literature, colleagues, professional associations, professional development activities).  They use classroom observation, information about students, and research as sources for evaluating the outcomes of teaching and learning and as a basis for experimenting with, reflecting on, and revising practice.  Candidates apply their knowledge of current research and national, state, and local guidelines relating to the disciplines taught in elementary school.



STANDARD 5.3.  Collaboration with families—Candidates know the importance of establishing and maintaining a positive collaborative relationship with families to promote the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical growth of children;

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand different family beliefs, traditions, values, and practices across cultures and within society and use their knowledge effectively.  They involve families as partners in supporting the school both inside and outside the classroom.  Candidates respect parents' choices and goals for their children and communicate effectively with parents about curriculum and children’s progress.  They involve families in assessing and planning for individual children, including children with disabilities, developmental delays, or special abilities.
  
Source document for collaboration with families

National Standards for Parent/Family Programs, National PTA, 1998



STANDARD 5.4.  Collaboration with colleagues and the community—Candidates foster relationships with school colleagues and agencies in the larger community to support students' learning and well-being.

Supporting explanation

Candidates understand schools as organizations within the larger community context and the operations of relevant aspects of the systems in which they work.  They also understand how factors in the elementary students' environments outside of school may influence the students'  cognitive, emotional, social, and physical well-being and, consequently, their lives and learning.  Candidates participate in collegial activities designed to make the entire school a productive learning environment and develop effective collaborations with specialists.

Source document for collaboration with colleagues and the community

Promoting Social and Emotional Learning: Guidelines for Educators, Maurice J. Elias et al., Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1997


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