January 2005 Physical Education Model Content Standards

January 2005 Physical Education Model Content Standards   


Physical Education
Model Content
Standards
for California
Public Schools
Kindergarten Through
Grade Twelve


© 2006 by the California Department of Education



Physical Education Model Content Standards
for California Public Schools:
Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve

Publishing Information
When the Physical Education Model Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve was adopted by the California State Board of Education on January 12, 2005, the members of the State Board were the following: Ruth Green, President; Glee Johnson, Vice President; Ruth Bloom, Don Fisher, Ricky Gill, Reed Hastings, Joe Nuñez, Bonnie Reiss, Suzanne Tacheny, and Johnathan Williams.

This publication was edited by Sheila Bruton and Faye Ong, working in cooperation with Dianne Wilson- Graham, Consultant, Professional Development and Curriculum Support Division. It was prepared for printing by the staff of CDE Press: the cover and interior design were created and prepared by Paul Lee; typesetting was done by Jeannette Reyes. It was published by the Department, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901, and was distributed under the provisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.

© 2006 by the California Department of Education
All rights reserved
ISBN 978-0-8011-1605-6

Acknowledgments
The following educators were appointed by Jack O’Connell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to assist in the development of the Physical Education Model Content Standards under the provisions of Education Code Section 60605.2:
Scott Bowman, Rancho San Joaquin Middle School, Irvine Unified School District, Irvine
Janice Collins, Los Angeles Unified School District, Los Angeles
Margaret Elliot, California State University, Fullerton
Jennifer Fry, Meadows Elementary School, Conejo Valley Unified School District, Thousand Oaks
Milissa Glen-Lambert, Monlux Elementary School, Los Angeles Unified School District, Valley Glen
Holly Gunterman, Idyllwild Elementary School, Hemet Unified School District, Idyllwild
Arleen Hammerschmidt, Oceanside Unified School District, Oceanside
Hasan Hanks, McClatchy High School, Sacramento City Unified School District, Sacramento
Ash Hayes, Full Life Fitness, San Marcos
Nancy Hennefer, Lodi Unified School District, Lodi
Wendy Jones, Marsh Elementary School, Antioch Unified School District, Antioch
Karen Mendon, Montebello Intermediate School, Montebello Unified School District, Montebello
Bill Monti, Retired Physical Educator, Kentfield
Mike Mostajo, Nipomo High School, Lucia Mar Unified School District, Nipomo
Debra Patterson, California State University, Northridge
Gloria Siech, Retired Physical Educator, Mill Valley
Bill Silva, Casa Grande High School, Petaluma Joint Union High School District, Petaluma
Perky Vetter, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Susan Wilkinson, San Jose State University, San Jose

Notice
The guidance in Physical Education Model Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve is not binding on local educational agencies or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)

A Message from the State Board of Education and the State Superintendent
of Public Instruction................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction................................................................................................................................. 4
Elementary School
Kindergarten...................................................................................................................................7

Grade One......................................................................................................................................9
Grade Two....................................................................................................................................12
Grade Three..................................................................................................................................15
Grade Four....................................................................................................................................18
Grade Five.....................................................................................................................................21
Middle School
Grade Six.......................................................................................................................................24

Grade Seven..................................................................................................................................26
Grade Eight....................................................................................................................................28
High School..................................................................................................................................30
High School Course 1....................................................................................................................31

High School Course 2....................................................................................................................33
High School Course 3A: Adventure/Outdoor Activities .................................................................35
High School Course 3B: Aerobic Activities................................................................................... 36
High School Course 3C: Individual and Dual Activities.................................................................38
High School Course 3D: Dance ....................................................................................................40
High School Course 3E: Aquatic Activities....................................................................................42
High School Course 3F: Weight Training and Fitness...................................................................44
High School Course 4A: Advanced Adventure/Outdoor Activities ................................................46
High School Course 4B: Advanced Aerobic Activities...................................................................47
High School Course 4C: Advanced Individual and Dual Activities….............................................48
High School Course 4D: Advanced Dance ...................................................................................49
Glossary........................................................................................................................................50


A Message from the State Board of Education and
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction

Physical education significantly contributes to students’ well-being; therefore, it is an instructional
priority for California schools and an integral part of our students’ educational experience. High-quality physical education instruction contributes to good health, develops fundamental and advanced motor
skills, improves students’ self-confidence, and provides opportunities for increased levels of physical fitness that are associated with high academic achievement. The Physical Education Model Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve affirms the standing of physical education; rigor is essential to achievement, and participation is not the same as education.

Mastering fundamental movement skills at an early age establishes a foundation that facilitates further motor skill acquisition and gives students increased capacity for a lifetime of successful and enjoyable physical activity experiences. Similarly, the patterns of physical activity acquired during childhood
and adolescence are likely to be maintained throughout one’s physical, mental, and social benefits.

These standards focus on the content of physical education and incorporate the detail required to guide the development of consistent, high-quality physical education instructional programs aimed at student learning and achievement. The standards provide a comprehensive vision of what students need
to know and be able to do at each grade level. In addition, the standards provide a model for high school course design.

Standards-based education maintains California’s control of schools. To help students achieve at high levels, local educators—with the full support and cooperation of families, businesses, and community partners—are encouraged to apply these standards and design the specific curricular and instructional strategies that best deliver the content to their students.

The physical education model content standards are complete and focused. They represent our commitment to promoting excellence in physical education instruction for every student in California.

Glee Johnson
President, State Board of Education

Jack O’Connell
State Superintendent of Public Instruction


Introduction

According to the U.S. Surgeon General, regular physical activity is one of the most important ways to maintain and improve one’s physical health, mental health, and overall well-being. A student who participates in physical education is more likely to become a healthy adult who is motivated to remain healthy and physically active throughout his or her life.

The physical education model content standards represent the essential skills and knowledge that all students need to maintain a physically active, healthy lifestyle. California law clearly establishes the priority of physical education instruction. Education Code Section 51210 requires 200 minutes of physical education every ten school days for students in
grades one through six. Education Code Section 51222 provides for 400 minutes of physical education every ten school days for students in grades seven through twelve.

The model content standards provide guidance for developing physical education programs by identifying what each student in California should know and be able to do at each grade level. With adequate instruction and sustained effort, students in every school should be able to achieve the standards. Some students with special needs may require appropriate accommodations, adaptations, and modifications to meet the standards. Decisions about how best to teach the standards are left to teachers, schools, and local educational agencies.

The forthcoming revision of the Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools will be based on and incorporate the model content standards. The framework will provide guidance for instruction, program development, and support for the teacher. Used together, the standards and framework will serve as a resource for all school stakeholders in developing a quality physical education program.

An Essential Discipline
Physical education is an integral part of the education program for all students. It teaches students how their bodies move and how to perform a variety of physical activities. Students learn the health-related benefits of regular physical activity and the skills to adopt a physically active, healthy lifestyle. The discipline also provides learning experiences that meet the developmental needs of students. With high quality physical education instruction, students become confident, independent, self-controlled, and resilient; develop positive social skills; set and strive for personal, achievable goals; learn to assume leadership; cooperate with others; accept responsibility for their own behavior; and, ultimately, improve their academic performance.

The model content standards provide opportunities for teachers to reinforce student learning in all areas of the curriculum. The standards link the content in physical education with content in English–language arts, science, mathematics, and history–social science, thereby establishing and emphasizing the many connections between the subjects.

Development of the Standards                       
The California Physical Education Model Content Standards Development Committee was convened to answer the question, What should California students know and be able to do in physical education? The physical education model content standards build on the work of exemplary documents and current research on the health-related issues facing children and youths in the state.

The model content standards also reflect guidance and suggestions from members of the California teaching community and other citizens who attended professional meetings and public hearings held around the state. At the meetings and hearings, parents and guardians, teachers, administrators, and business and community leaders helped define key issues. Current practice and the state of physical education instruction in California were given special consideration during the process. In addition, physical education experts from around the nation reviewed the first draft and submitted formal comments. Their ideas helped immeasurably to strengthen the rigor and quality of the standards.
Although the committee recognizes that changes in practices by schools, teachers, and students will take time, the committee believes achieving these standards is a high priority for California students. The Physical Education Model Content Standards will assist schools in establishing learning goals and objectives for physical education. A sequential, developmentally appropriate curriculum should be designed and implemented to help students acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and confidence needed to adopt and maintain a physically active, healthy lifestyle.

Highlights of the Standards
The five overarching model content standards for elementary and middle school students are as follows:

Standard 1: Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Standard 2: Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Standard 3: Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Standard 4: Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Standard 5: Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

In elementary school the content standards emphasize the way in which students move through space and time in their environment, the way in which the student and a partner move in space together, the continuity and change in movement, the manipulation of objects in time and through space, and the manipulation of objects with accuracy and speed.

In middle school the content standards emphasize working cooperatively to achieve a common goal, meeting challenges, making decisions, and working as a team to solve problems.

For high school youths the three overarching content standards are as follows:

Standard 1: Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Standard 2: Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

Standard 3: Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

The high school experience represents the culmination of physical education. From kindergarten through fifth grade, the content is delivered incrementally to best enable student learning at the appropriate developmental level. In sixth through eighth grade, the content is consolidated and students’ skills are refined, representing a natural progression of skill sophistication. When students reach ninth grade, they are ready to integrate all that they know with all that they can do. They become capable of higher-order thinking and of more skilled performance. Therefore, the five elementary and middle school model content standards have been combined into the three high school model content standards noted earlier.

To fulfill the requirement for high school graduation, students must take two years of physical education in high school. In this publication these two years are referred to as High School Course 1 and Course 2. The content of these courses has been selected from activities listed in the California Code of Regulations, Title 5, Section 10060.
In addition, High School Courses 3 and 4 are electives available to students. All schools are required by Education Code Section 51222 to provide physical education elective courses for students after they have completed the years of physical education required for graduation.

High School Course 3 electives allow students to explore a variety of physical activities in search of one for lifelong enjoyment. High School Course 4 electives are designed as a continuation of High School Course 3 and are intended for students who wish to pursue advanced knowledge and skills and who want an intensive experience in an activity that they might commit to for the rest of their lives.


KINDERGARTEN

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
1.1   Travel within a large group, without bumping into others or falling, while using locomotor skills.
1.2   Travel forward and sideways while changing direction quickly in response to a signal.
1.3   Demonstrate contrasts between slow and fast speeds while using locomotor skills.
1.4   Create shapes at high, medium, and low levels by using hands, arms, torso, feet, and legs in a
        variety of combinations.
Body Management
1.5   Create shapes by using nonlocomotor movements.
1.6   Balance on one, two, three, four, and five body parts.
1.7   Balance while walking forward and sideways on a narrow, elevated surface.
1.8   Demonstrate the relationship of under, over, behind, next to, through, right, left, up, down, forward, 
        backward, and in front of by using the body and an object.
Locomotor Movement
1.9   Perform a continuous log roll.
1.10 Travel in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways.
1.11 Jump over a stationary rope several times in succession, using forward-and-back and side-to-side     
        movement patterns.
Manipulative Skills
1.12 Strike a stationary ball or balloon with the hands, arms, and feet.
1.13 Toss a ball to oneself, using the underhand throw pattern, and catch it before it bounces twice.
1.14 Kick a stationary object, using a simple kicking pattern.
1.15 Bounce a ball continuously, using two hands.
Rhythmic Skills
1.16 Perform locomotor and nonlocomotor movements to a steady beat.
1.17 Clap in time to a simple, rhythmic beat.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Explain the difference between under and over, behind and in front of, next to and through, up and     
        down, forward and backward, and sideways.
2.2   Identify and independently use personal space, general space, and boundaries and discuss why  
        they are important.
Body Management
2.3   Identify and describe parts of the body: the head, shoulders, neck, back, chest, waist, hips, arms,
        elbows, wrists, hands, fingers, legs, knees, ankles, feet, and toes.
2.4   Explain base of support.
Locomotor Movement
2.5   Identify the locomotor skills of walk, jog, run, hop, jump, slide, and gallop.
Manipulative Skills
2.6   Explain the role of the eyes when striking objects with the hands, arms, and feet.
2.7   Identify the point of contact for kicking a ball in a straight line.
2.8   Describe the position of the fingers in the follow-through phase of bouncing a ball continuously.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
Aerobic Capacity
3.2    Participate three to four days each week in moderate to vigorous physical activities that increase 
        breathing and heart rate.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.3   Hang from overhead bars for increasing periods of time.
3.4   Climb a ladder, jungle gym, or apparatus.
Flexibility
3.5   Stretch shoulders, legs, arms, and back without bouncing.
Body Composition
3.6     Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to
 vigorous physical activity.
Assessment
3.7   Identify indicators of increased capacity to participate in vigorous physical activity.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1     Identify physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
4.2     Describe the role of water as an essential nutrient for the body.
4.3     Explain that nutritious food provides energy for physical activity.
Aerobic Capacity
4.4     Identify the location of the heart and explain that it is a muscle.
4.5     Explain that physical activity increases the heart rate.
4.6     Identify the location of the lungs and explain the role of the lungs in the collection of oxygen.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.7    Explain that strong muscles help the body to climb, hang, push, and pull.
4.8     Describe the role of muscles in moving the bones.
Flexibility
4.9     Identify the body part involved when stretching.
Body Composition
4.10    Explain that the body is composed of bones, organs, fat, and other tissues.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Identify the feelings that result from participation in physical activity.
5.2   Participate willingly in physical activities.
Social Interaction
5.3   Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing in a physical activity.
5.4   Describe how positive social interaction can make physical activity with others more fun.
Group Dynamics
5.5    Participate as a leader and a follower during physical activities.



GRADE ONE

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
1.1   Demonstrate an awareness of personal space, general space, and boundaries while moving in  different directions and at high, medium, and low levels in space.
1.2   Travel over, under, in front of, behind, and through objects and over, under, in front of, and behind 
        partners, using locomotor skills.
1.3   Change speeds in response to tempos, rhythms, and signals while traveling in straight, curved, and zigzag pathways, using the following locomotor movements: walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, galloping, sliding, and skipping.
1.4   Change direction from forward and back and right and left in response to tempos, rhythms, and signals while walking, running, hopping, and jumping (i.e., locomotor skills).
1.5     Demonstrate the difference between slow and fast, heavy and light, and hard and soft while moving.
Body Management
1.6     Balance oneself, demonstrating momentary stillness, in symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes using body parts other than both feet as a base of support.
Locomotor Movement
1.7     Roll smoothly in a forward direction, without stopping or hesitating, emphasizing a rounded form.
1.8     Land on both feet after taking off on one foot and on both feet.
1.9     Jump a swinging rope held by others.
Manipulative Skills
1.10    Demonstrate the underhand movement (throw) pattern.
1.11 Demonstrate the overhand movement (throw) pattern.
1.12 Demonstrate the two-handed overhead (throw) pattern.
1.13 Catch, showing proper form, a gently thrown ball.
1.14 Catch a self-tossed ball.
1.15 Catch a self-bounced ball.
1.16 Kick a rolled ball from a stationary position.
1.17 Kick a stationary ball, using a smooth, continuous running approach.
1.18 Strike a balloon upward continuously, using arms, hands, and feet.
1.19 Strike a balloon upward continuously, using a large, short-handled paddle.
1.20 Dribble a ball in a forward direction, using the inside of the foot.
1.21 Dribble a ball continuously with one hand.
Rhythmic Skills
1.22 Create or imitate movement in response to rhythms and music.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Identify the right and left sides of the body and movement from right to left and left to right.
2.2     Identify people/objects that are within personal space and within boundaries.
Body Management
2.3   Identify the base of support of balanced objects.
Locomotor Movement
2.4   Distinguish between a jog and a run, a hop and a jump, and a gallop and a slide and explain the key
        differences and similarities in those movements.
Manipulative Skills
2.5   Identify examples of underhand and overhand movement patterns.
2.6     Explain that in the underhand throw, the position of the fingers at the moment of release can
        influence.
2.7   Explain that the nonthrowing arm and hand provide balance and can influence the direction a tossed   
        object and a thrown object travel.
2.8   Explain that the point of release influences the direction of a tossed object and of a thrown object.
2.9      Describe the proper hand and finger position for catching a ball.
2.10 Demonstrate and explain how to reduce the impact force while catching an object.
2.11 Identify the placement of the nonkicking foot when kicking with a smooth, running approach.
2.12 Identify the location of the contact point to strike an object upward.
2.13 Determine and analyze how much force is needed to move the ball forward while dribbling with the
    hand and with the foot.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Participate in physical activities that are enjoyable and challenging.
Aerobic Capacity
3.2    Participate three to four times each week, for increasing periods of time, in moderate to vigorous 
        physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.3   Demonstrate, for increasing periods of time, a “v” sit position, a push-up position with arms extended, and a squat position.
3.4   Move from a sitting to a standing position and from a lying to a sitting position without using arms to brace oneself while on the floor.
3.5     Travel hand-over-hand along a horizontal ladder or hang from an overhead bar.
Flexibility
3.6   Stretch arms, shoulders, back, and legs without hyperflexing or hyperextending the joints.
Body Composition
3.7   Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to  vigorous physical activity.
Assessment
3.8    Identify and use two indicators of increased capacity for vigorous physical activity to measure a change in activity levels.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1     Identify enjoyable and challenging physical activities that one can do for increasing periods of time
        without stopping.
4.2   Explain the importance of drinking water during and after physical activity.
4.3   Explain that nutritious food provides energy for alertness and mental concentration.
Aerobic Capacity
4.4     Recognize that the heart is the most important muscle in the body and is approximately the size of a fist.
4.5     Explain that increasing the heart rate during physical activity strengthens the heart muscle.
4.6    Identify physical activities that cause the heart to beat faster.
4.7     Describe the role of blood in transporting oxygen from the lungs.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.8    Explain that strengthening muscles will help prevent injury and that strong muscles will produce more force.
4.9   Discuss how prolonged physical activity increases endurance, allowing movement to occur for longer periods of time.
Flexibility
4.10 Explain that the proper body position while stretching and strengthening will help prevent injury.
4.11 Diagram how flexible muscles allow more range of motion in physical activity.
Body Composition
4.12 Identify the body components (e.g., bones, muscles, organs, fat, and other tissues).

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Participate willingly in new physical activities.
5.2   Identify and demonstrate acceptable responses to challenges, successes, and failures in physical
        activity.
Social Interaction
5.3   Demonstrate the characteristics of sharing and cooperation in physical activity.
5.4   Invite others to use equipment or apparatus before repeating a turn.
Group Dynamics
5.5   Identify and demonstrate the attributes of an effective partner in physical activity.
5.6   Identify and demonstrate effective practices for working with a group without interfering with others.



GRADE TWO

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
1.1   Move to open spaces within boundaries while traveling at increasing rates of speed.
Body Management
1.2   Transfer weight from feet to hands and from hands to feet, landing with control.
1.3   Demonstrate balance on the ground and on objects, using bases of support other than both feet.
1.4   Create a routine that includes two types of body rolls (e.g., log roll, egg roll, shoulder roll, forward
        roll) 
Locomotor Movement
1.5   Jump for distance, landing on both feet and bending the hips, knees, and ankles to reduce the 
        impact force.
1.6   Skip and leap, using proper form.
Manipulative Skills
1.7   Roll a ball for distance, using proper form.
1.8   Throw a ball for distance, using proper form.
1.9   Catch a gently thrown ball above the waist, reducing the impact force.
1.10 Catch a gently thrown ball below the waist, reducing the impact force.
1.11 Kick a slowly rolling ball.
1.12 Strike a balloon consistently in an upward or forward motion, using a short-handled paddle.
1.13 Strike a ball with a bat from a tee or cone, using correct grip and side orientation.
1.14 Hand-dribble, with control, a ball for a sustained period.
1.15 Foot-dribble, with control, a ball along the ground.
1.16 Jump a rope turned repeatedly.
Rhythmic Skills
1.17 Demonstrate a smooth transition between even-beat locomotor skills and uneven-beat locomotor
        skills in response to music or an external beat.
1.18 Perform rhythmic sequences related to simple folk dance or ribbon routines.
1.19 Perform with a partner rhythmic sequences related to simple folk dance or ribbon routines.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1    Define open space.
2.2    Explain how to reduce the impact force of an oncoming object.
Body Management
2.3   Explain the importance of a wide rather than a narrow base of support in balance activities.
2.4   Explain why one hand or foot is often preferred when practicing movement skills.
Locomotor Movement
2.5   Compare and contrast locomotor movements conducted to even and uneven beats.
Manipulative Skills
2.6   Identify opportunities to use underhand and overhand movement (throw) patterns.
2.7   Identify different opportunities to use striking skills.
2.8   Compare the changes in force applied to a ball and the ball speed when rolling a ball for various
        distances.
2.9   Explain key elements of throwing for distance.
2.10 Identify the roles of body parts not directly involved in catching objects.
2.11 Identify when to begin the kicking motion when kicking a slowly rolling ball.
2.12 Identify the different points of contact when striking a balloon upward and striking a balloon forward.
2.13 Explain the purpose of using a side orientation when striking a ball from a batting tee.
2.14 Differentiate the effects of varying arm and hand speeds when hand-dribbling a ball.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Participate in enjoyable and challenging physical activities for increasing periods of time.
Aerobic Capacity
3.2    Participate three to four times each week, for increasing periods of time, in moderate to vigorous
physical activities that increase breathing and heart rate.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.3   Perform abdominal curl-ups, modified push-ups, oblique curl-ups, forward and side lunges, squats,       
and triceps push-ups from a chair or bench to enhance endurance and increase muscle efficiency.
3.4   Traverse the overhead ladder one bar at a time.
Flexibility
3.5    Demonstrate the proper form for stretching the hamstrings, quadriceps, shoulders, biceps, and
        triceps.
Body Composition
3.6   Engage in moderate to vigorous physical activity for increasing periods of time.
Assessment
3.7   Measure improvements in individual fitness levels.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1   Explain the fuel requirements of the body during physical activity and inactivity.
4.2   Describe the role of moderate to vigorous physical activity in achieving or maintaining good health.
4.3   Identify ways to increase time for physical activity outside of school.
4.4   Discuss how body temperature and blood volume are maintained during physical activity when an
        adequate amount of water is consumed.
4.5    Explain how the intensity and duration of exercise, as well as nutritional choices, affect fuel use
during physical activity.
Aerobic Capacity
4.6   Compare and contrast the function of the heart during rest and during physical activity.
4.7   Describe the relationship between the heart and lungs during physical activity.
4.8   Compare and contrast changes in heart rate before, during, and after physical activity.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.9   Describe how muscle strength and muscle endurance enhance motor skill performance.
4.10 Identify muscles being strengthened during the performance of particular physical activities.
4.11 Identify which activities or skills would be accomplished more efficiently with stronger muscles.
4.12 Explain the role that weight-bearing activities play in bone strength.
Flexibility
4.13 Identify the muscles being stretched during the performance of particular physical activities.
4.14 Explain why it is safer to stretch a warm muscle rather than a cold muscle.
Body Composition
4.15 Describe the differences in density and weight between bones, muscles, organs, and fat.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1    Participate in a variety of group settings (e.g., partners, small groups, large groups) without
 interfering with others.           
5.2   Accept responsibility for one’s own behavior in a group activity.
Social Interaction
5.3   Acknowledge one’s opponent or partner before, during, and after an activity or game and give
        positive feedback on the opponent’s or partner’s performance.     
5.4   Encourage others by using verbal and nonverbal communication.
5.5   Demonstrate respect for self, others, and equipment during physical activities.
5.6   Demonstrate how to solve a problem with another person during physical activity.
Group Dynamics
5.7   Participate positively in physical activities that rely on cooperation.


GRADE THREE

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
1.1     Chase, flee, and move away from others in a constantly changing environment.
Body Management
1.2     Perform an inverted balance (tripod) by evenly distributing weight on body parts.
1.3     Perform a forward roll.
1.4     Perform a straddle roll.
Locomotor Movement
1.5     Jump continuously a forward-turning rope and a backward-turning rope.
Manipulative Skills
1.6     Balance while traveling and manipulating an object on a ground-level balance beam.
1.7     Catch, while traveling, an object thrown by a stationary partner.
1.8     Roll a ball for accuracy toward a target.
1.9     Throw a ball, using the overhand movement pattern with increasing accuracy.
1.10 Throw and catch an object with a partner, increasing the distance from the partner and maintaining
    an accurate throw that can be easily caught.
1.11 Kick a ball to a stationary partner, using the inside of the foot.
1.12 Strike a ball continuously upward, using a paddle or racket.
1.13 Hand-dribble a ball continuously while moving around obstacles.
1.14 Foot-dribble a ball continuously while traveling and changing direction.
Rhythmic Skills
1.15 Perform a line dance, a circle dance, and a folk dance with a partner.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1     Describe how changing speed and changing direction can allow one person to move away from
 another.
Manipulative Skills
2.2   Explain and demonstrate the correct hand position when catching a ball above the head, below the
        waist, near the middle of the body, and away from the body.
2.3   Explain the difference between throwing to a stationary partner and throwing to a moving partner.
2.4   Identify the key elements for increasing accuracy in rolling a ball and throwing a ball.
2.5   Identify the differences between dribbling a ball (with the hand and the foot, separately) while moving
        Forward and when changing direction.
Rhythmic Skills
2.6   Define the terms folk dance, line dance, and circle dance.
2.7   Compare and contrast folk dances, line dances, and circle dances.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Demonstrate warm-up and cool-down exercises.
3.2   Demonstrate how to lift and carry objects correctly.
Aerobic Capacity
3.3    Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to
vigorous physical activities that require sustained movement of the large muscle groups to increase breathing and heart rate.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.4   Perform increasing numbers of each: abdominal curl-ups, oblique curl-ups on each side, modified
        push-ups or traditional push-ups with hands on a bench, forward lunges, side lunges, and triceps
        push-ups from a chair.
3.5   Climb a vertical pole or rope.
Flexibility
3.6    Hold for an increasing period of time basic stretches for hips, shoulders, hamstrings, quadriceps,
triceps, biceps, back, and neck.
Body Composition
3.7    Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to
vigorous physical activity.
Assessment
3.8   Measure and record improvement in individual fitness activities.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1   Identify the body’s normal reactions to moderate to vigorous physical activity.
4.2   List and define the components of physical fitness.
4.3   Explain the purpose of warming up before physical activity and cooling down after physical activity.
4.4   Recognize that the body will adapt to increased workloads.
4.5   Explain that fluid needs are linked to energy expenditure.
4.6   Discuss the need for oxygen and fuel to be available during ongoing muscle contraction so that heat
        and waste products are removed.
Aerobic Capacity
4.7   Describe the relationship between the heart, lungs, muscles, blood, and oxygen during physical
        activity.
4.8   Describe and record the changes in heart rate before, during, and after physical activity.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.9   Explain that a stronger heart muscle can pump more blood with each beat.
4.10 Identify which muscles are used in performing muscular endurance activities.
4.11 Name and locate the major muscles of the body.
4.12 Describe and demonstrate how to relieve a muscle cramp.
4.13 Describe the role of muscle strength and proper lifting in the prevention of back injuries.
Flexibility
4.14 Identify flexibility exercises that are not safe for the joints and should be avoided.
4.15 Explain why a particular stretch is appropriate preparation for a particular physical activity.
Body Composition
4.16 Differentiate the body’s ability to consume calories and burn fat during periods of inactivity and
        during long periods of moderate physical activity.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Set a personal goal to improve a motor skill and work toward that goal in nonschool time.
5.2   Collect data and record progress toward mastery of a motor skill.
5.3   List the benefits of following and the risks of not following safety procedures and rules associated
        with physical activity.
Social Interaction
5.4   Use appropriate cues for movement and positive words of encouragement while coaching others in
        physical activities.
5.5   Demonstrate respect for individual differences in physical abilities.
Group Dynamics
5.6   Work in pairs or small groups to achieve an agreed-upon goal.


GRADE FOUR

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Body Management
1.1   Perform simple balance stunts with a partner while sharing a common base of support.
1.2   Change direction quickly to maintain the spacing between two players.
1.3   Change direction quickly to increase the spacing between two players.
1.4   Determine the spacing between offensive and defensive players based on the speed of the players.
Locomotor Movement
1.5   Jump a self-turned rope.
Manipulative Skills
1.6   Throw and catch an object with a partner while both partners are moving.
1.7   Throw overhand at increasingly smaller targets, using proper follow-through.
1.8   Throw a flying disc for distance, using the backhand movement pattern.
1.9   Catch a fly ball above the head, below the waist, and away from the body.
1.10 Kick a ball to a moving partner, using the inside of the foot.
1.11 Kick a stationary ball from the ground into the air.
1.12 Punt a ball dropped from the hands.
1.13 Strike, with a paddle or racket, a lightweight object that has been tossed by a partner.
1.14 Serve a lightweight ball to a partner, using the underhand movement pattern.
1.15 Strike a gently tossed ball with a bat, using a side orientation.
1.16 Keep a foot-dribbled ball away from a defensive partner.
1.17 Keep a hand-dribbled ball away from a defensive partner.
1.18 Manipulate an object by using a long-handled implement.
1.19 Stop a kicked ball by trapping it with the foot while standing still.
1.20 Volley a tossed lightweight ball, using the forearm pass.
Rhythmic Skills
1.21 Perform a series of basic square-dance steps.
1.22 Perform a routine to music that includes even and uneven locomotor patterns.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Explain the difference between offense and defense.
2.2   Describe ways to create more space between an offensive player and a defensive player.
Body Management
2.3   Describe the appropriate body orientation to serve a ball, using the underhand movement pattern.
2.4   Describe the appropriate body orientation to strike a ball, using the forehand movement pattern.
Manipulative Skills
2.5   Explain the similar movement elements of the underhand throw and the underhand volleyball serve.
2.6   Distinguish between punting and kicking and describe the similarities and differences.
2.7   Compare and contrast dribbling a ball without a defender and with a defender.
2.8   Explain the differences in manipulating an object when using a long-handled implement and when
        using a short-handled implement.
2.9   Identify key body positions used for volleying a ball.
Rhythmic Skills
2.10 Design a routine to music that includes even and uneven locomotor patterns.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Participate in appropriate warm-up and cool-down exercises for particular physical activities.
3.2   Demonstrate the correct body position for pushing and pulling large objects.
Aerobic Capacity
3.3   Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to
        vigorous physical activities at the appropriate intensity to increase aerobic capacity.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.4   Perform increasing numbers of each: abdominal curl-ups, oblique curl-ups on each side, modified
        push-ups or traditional push-ups, and triceps push-ups.
3.5   Hang by the hands from an overhead bar with the hips and knees each at a 90-degree angle.
Flexibility
3.6    Demonstrate basic stretches using proper alignment for hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexors, triceps,
back, shoulders, hip abductors, and calves.
Body Composition
3.7    Sustain continuous movement for increasing periods of time while participating in moderate to
vigorous physical activity.
Assessment
3.8   Measure and record changes in aerobic capacity and muscular strength, using scientifically based
        health-related physical fitness assessments.
3.9   Meet minimum requirements for health-related physical fitness, using scientifically based health
        related physical fitness assessments.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1   Identify the correct body alignment for performing lower-body stretches.
4.2   Explain the principles of physical fitness: frequency, intensity, time, and type.
4.3   Set personal short-term goals for aerobic endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and
        flexibility and monitor progress by measuring and recording personal fitness scores.
4.4   Identify healthful choices for meals and snacks that help improve physical performance.
4.5   Explain why the body needs water before, during, and after physical activity.
4.6   Explain why the body uses a higher percentage of carbohydrates for fuel during high intensity
        physical activity and a higher percentage of fat for fuel during low-intensity physical activity.
4.7   Explain the purpose of warm-up and cool-down periods.
Aerobic Capacity
4.8   Calculate personal heart rate per minute by recording heartbeats for ten-second intervals and 15
        second intervals.
4.9   Explain why a strong heart is able to return quickly to its resting rate after exertion.
4.10 Identify two characteristics of physical activity that build aerobic capacity.
4.11 Determine the intensity of personal physical activity by using the concept of perceived exertion.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.12 Describe the difference between muscular strength and muscular endurance.
4.13 Explain why muscular endurance or muscular strength activities do not increase muscle mass in
        preadolescent children.
4.14 Recognize how strengthening major muscles can improve performance at work and play.
4.15 Describe the correct form to push and pull heavy objects.
Flexibility
4.16 Explain the value of increased flexibility when participating in physical activity.
Body Composition
4.17 Explain the effect of regular, sustained physical activity on the body’s ability to consume calories and
        burn fat for energy.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Set a personal goal to improve an area of health-related physical fitness and work toward that goal
        in nonschool time.
5.2   Collect data and record progress toward attainment of a personal fitness goal.
5.3   Accept responsibility for one’s own performance without blaming others.
5.4   Respond to winning and losing with dignity and respect.
Social Interaction
5.5   Include others in physical activities and respect individual differences in skill and motivation.
Group Dynamics
5.6    Accept an opponent’s outstanding skill, use of strategies, or ability to work effectively with
teammates as a challenge of physical fitness.


GRADE FIVE

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Body Management
1.1   Perform simple small-group balance stunts by distributing weight and base of support.
Locomotor Movement
1.2   Jump for height, using proper takeoff and landing form.
1.3   Jump for distance, using proper takeoff and landing form.
Manipulative Skills
1.4   Enter, jump, and leave a long rope turned by others.
1.5   Throw a flying disc accurately at a target and to a partner, using the backhand movement pattern.
1.6   Throw and catch an object underhand and overhand while avoiding an opponent.
1.7   Field a thrown ground ball.
1.8   Punt a ball, dropped from the hands, at a target.
1.9   Stop a kicked ball by trapping it with the foot while moving.
1.10 Strike a dropped ball, with a racket or paddle, toward a target by using the forehand movement
        pattern.
1.11 Hit a softly tossed ball backhanded with a paddle or racket.
1.12 Strike a tossed ball, with different implements, from a side orientation.
1.13 Serve a lightweight ball over a low net, using the underhand movement pattern.
1.14 Dribble a ball (by hand or foot) while preventing another person from stealing the ball.
1.15 Dribble a ball and kick it toward a goal while being guarded.
1.16 Pass a ball back and forth with a partner, using a chest pass and bounce pass.
1.17 Volley a tossed ball to an intended location.
Rhythmic Skills
1.18 Design and perform a creative dance, combining locomotor patterns with intentional changes in
        speed and direction.
1.19 Design and perform a routine to music that involves manipulation of an object.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Explain the importance of open space in playing sport-related games.
2.2   Explain the differences in applying and receiving force when jumping for height and distance.
Body Management
2.3   Explain how to adjust body position to catch a ball thrown off-center.
Manipulative Skills
2.4    Identify the following phases for striking a ball: preparation, application of force, follow-through, and
recovery.
Rhythmic Skills
2.5   Design a routine to music, changing speed and direction while manipulating an object.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
3.1   Demonstrate how to warm up muscles and joints before running, jumping, kicking, throwing, and
        striking.


3.2    Plan a day of healthful balanced meals and snacks designed to enhance the performance of                                                      
physical activities.
Aerobic Capacity
3.3    Participate three to four days each week, for increasing periods of time, in continuous moderate to
vigorous physical activities at the appropriate intensity for increasing aerobic capacity.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
3.4   Perform an increasing number of oblique curl-ups on each side.
3.5   Perform increasing numbers of triceps push-ups.
Flexibility
3.6   Perform flexibility exercises that will stretch particular muscle areas for given physical activities.
Body Composition
3.7   Sustain continuous movement for an increasing period of time while participating in moderate to
        vigorous physical activities.
Assessment
3.8   Assess health-related physical fitness by using a scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessment.
3.9   Meet age- and gender-specific fitness standards for aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility,
        and body composition, using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

Fitness Concepts
4.1   Record and analyze food consumption for one day and make a plan to replace foods with healthier
        choices and adjust quantities to enhance performance in physical activity.
4.2   Explain why dehydration impairs temperature regulation and physical and mental performance.
4.3   Develop and describe three short-term and three long-term fitness goals.
4.4   Examine personal results of a scientifically based health-related physical fitness assessment and
        identify one or more ways to improve performance in areas that do not meet minimum standards.
4.5   Explain the elements of warm-up and cool-down activities.
4.6   Record water intake before, during, and after physical activity.
4.7   Describe the principles of training and the application to each of the components of health-related
        physical fitness.
Aerobic Capacity
4.8   Identify the heart rate intensity (target heart-rate range) that is necessary to increase aerobic
        capacity.
4.9   Determine the intensity of personal physical activity, using the concept of perceived exertion.
4.10 Compare target heart rate and perceived exertion during physical activity.
4.11 Measure and record the heart rate before, during, and after vigorous physical activity.
4.12 Explain how technology can assist in the pursuit of physical fitness.
Muscular Strength/Endurance
4.13 Explain the benefits of having strong arm, chest, and back muscles.
Flexibility
4.14 Explain the benefits of stretching after warm-up activities.
Body Composition
4.15 Explain why body weight is maintained when calorie intake is equal to the calories expended.
4.16 Describe the short- and long-term benefits of maintaining body composition within the healthy fitness
        zone.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Improve the level of performance on one component of health-related physical fitness and one
        identified motor skill by participating in fitness and skill development activities outside school.
5.2   Work toward a long-term physical activity goal and record data on one’s progress.
5.3   Distinguish between acts of physical courage and physically reckless acts and explain the key
        characteristics of each.
5.4    Act in a safe and healthy manner when confronted with negative peer pressure during physical
activity.
Social Interaction
5.5   Contribute ideas and listen to the ideas of others in cooperative problem-solving activities.
5.6   Acknowledge orally the contributions and strengths of others.
Group Dynamics
5.7   Accommodate individual differences in others’ physical abilities in small-group activities.
5.8   Appreciate physical games and activities reflecting diverse heritages.


GRADE SIX

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Manipulative Skills
1.1   Volley an object repeatedly with a partner, using the forearm pass.
1.2   Strike a ball continuously against a wall and with a partner, using a paddle for the forehand stroke
        and the backhand stroke.
1.3   Strike an object consistently, using a body part, so that the object travels in the intended direction at
        the desired height.
1.4   Strike an object consistently, using an implement, so that the object travels in the intended direction
        at the desired height.
1.5   Dribble and pass a ball to a partner while being guarded.
1.6   Throw an object accurately and with applied force, using the underhand, overhand, and sidearm
        movement (throw) patterns.
Rhythmic Skills
1.7   Perform folk and line dances.
1.8   Develop, refine, and demonstrate routines to music.
Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
1.9   Combine relationships, levels, speed, direction, and pathways in complex individual and group
        physical activities.
1.10 Combine motor skills to play a lead-up or modified game.
1.11 Design and perform smooth, flowing sequences of stunts, tumbling, and rhythmic patterns that
        combine traveling, rolling, balancing, and transferring weight.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Explain how to increase force based on the principles of biomechanics.
2.2   Explain how impact force is reduced by increasing the duration of impact.
2.3   Analyze and correct errors in movement patterns.
2.4   Provide feedback to a partner to assist in developing and improving movement skills.
2.5   Identify practices and procedures necessary for safe participation in physical activities.
Manipulative Skills
2.6   Explain the role of the legs, shoulders, and forearm in the forearm pass.
2.7   Identify the time necessary to prepare for and begin a forehand stroke and a backhand stroke.
2.8   Illustrate how the intended direction of an object is affected by the angle of the implement or body
        part at the time of contact.
2.9   Identify opportunities to pass or dribble while being guarded.
Rhythmic Skills
2.10 Identify steps and rhythm patterns for folk and line dances.
2.11 Explain how movement qualities contribute to the aesthetic dimension of physical activity.
Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
2.12 Develop a cooperative movement game that uses locomotor skills, object manipulation, and an
        offensive strategy and teach the game to another person.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

3.1   Assess the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance,
        flexibility, aerobic capacity, and body composition) by using a scientifically based health-related
        fitness assessment.
3.2   Compare individual physical fitness results with research-based standards for good health.
3.3   Develop individual goals for each of the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle
        strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, aerobic capacity, and body composition).
3.4   Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
3.5   Measure and evaluate changes in health-related physical fitness based on physical activity patterns.
3.6   Monitor the intensity of one’s heart rate during physical activity.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

4.1   Distinguish between effective and ineffective warm-up and cool-down techniques.
4.2   Develop a one-day personal physical fitness plan specifying the intensity, time, and types of physical
        activities for each component of health-related physical fitness.
4.3   Identify contraindicated exercises and their adverse effects on the body.
4.4   Classify physical activities as aerobic or anaerobic.
4.5   Explain methods of monitoring heart rate intensity.
4.6   List the long-term benefits of participation in regular physical activity.
4.7   Compile and analyze a log noting the food intake/calories consumed and energy expended through
        physical activity.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Participate productively in group physical activities.
5.2   Evaluate individual responsibility in group efforts.
Social Interaction
5.3   Identify and define the role of each participant in a cooperative physical activity.
Group Dynamics
5.4   Identify and agree on a common goal when participating in a cooperative physical activity.
5.5   Analyze possible solutions to a movement problem in a cooperative physical activity and come to a
        consensus on the best solution.


GRADE SEVEN

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Manipulative Skills
1.1    Demonstrate mature techniques for the following patterns: overhand, sidearm, and underhand
throwing; catching; kicking/punting; striking; trapping; dribbling (hand and foot); and volleying.
Rhythmic Skills
1.2   Perform multicultural dances.
Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
1.3   Combine manipulative, locomotor, and nonlocomotor skills into movement patterns.
1.4   Demonstrate body management and object-manipulation skills needed for successful participation in
        individual and dual physical activities.
1.5   Demonstrate body management and locomotor skills needed for successful participation in track and
        field and combative activities.
1.6    Demonstrate body management and object-manipulation skills needed for successful participation in
introductory adventure/outdoor activities.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Manipulative Skills
2.1    Identify and describe key elements in the mature performance of overhand, sidearm, and underhand
throwing; catching; kicking/punting; striking; trapping; dribbling (hand and foot); and volleying.
Movement Concepts
2.2   Analyze movement patterns and correct errors.
2.3   Use principles of motor learning to establish, monitor, and meet goals for motor skill development.
2.4   Explain and demonstrate spin and rebound principles for performing manipulative skills.
2.5   Compare and contrast the effectiveness of practicing skills as a whole and practicing skills in smaller
        parts.
2.6   Diagram and demonstrate basic offensive and defensive strategies for individual and dual physical
        activities.
Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
2.7    Develop an individual or dual game that uses a manipulative skill, two different offensive strategies,
and a scoring system and teach it to another person.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

3.1   Assess one’s own muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body
        composition by using a scientifically based health-related fitness assessment.
3.2   Evaluate individual measures of physical fitness in relationship to patterns of physical activity.
3.3   Develop individual goals, from research-based standards, for each of the five components of
        health-related physical fitness.
3.4   Plan a weekly personal physical fitness program in collaboration with the teacher.
3.5   Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
3.6   Assess periodically the attainment of, or progress toward, personal physical fitness goals and make
        necessary adjustments to a personal physical fitness program.

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.

4.1   Develop a one-week personal physical fitness plan specifying the proper warm-up and cool-down
        activities
4.2   Identify physical activities that are effective in improving each of the health-related physical fitness
        components.
4.3   Match personal preferences in physical activities with each of the five components of health-related
        physical fitness.
4.4   Explain the effects of physical activity on heart rate during exercise, during the recovery phase, and
        while to body is at rest.
4.5   Describe the role of physical activity and nutrition in achieving physical fitness.
4.6   Identify and apply the principles of overload in safe, age-appropriate activities.
4.7   Explain progression, overload, and specificity as principles of exercise.
4.8   Discuss the effect of extremity growth rates on physical fitness.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1   Identify appropriate and inappropriate risks involved in adventure, individual, and dual physical
        activities.
5.2   Accept responsibility for individual improvement.
Social Interaction
5.3   Demonstrate an acceptance of differences in physical development and personal preferences as
        they affect participation in physical activity.
Group Dynamics
5.4   Evaluate the effect of expressing encouragement to others while participating in a group physical
        activity.
5.5   Identify the responsibilities of a leader in physical activity.


GRADE EIGHT

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate the motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

Rhythmic Skills
1.1   Identify and demonstrate square dance steps, positions, and patterns set to music.
1.2   Create and perform a square dance.
Combinations of Movement Patterns and Skills
1.3   Demonstrate basic offensive and defensive skills and strategies in team physical activities.
1.4   Apply locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills to team physical activities.
1.5   Demonstrate fundamental gymnastic/tumbling skills.
1.6   Create and perform a routine using fundamental gymnastic/tumbling skills, locomotor and
        nonlocomotor movement patterns, and the elements of speed, direction, and level.

STANDARD 2
Students demonstrate knowledge of movement concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activities.

Movement Concepts
2.1   Describe and demonstrate how movement skills learned in one physical activity can be transferred
        and used to help learn another physical activity.
2.2   Explain the rotation principles used in performing various manipulative skills.
2.3   Explain how growth in height and weight affects performance and influences the selection of
        developmentally appropriate physical activities.
Combination of Movement Patterns and Skills
2.4   Identify the characteristics of a highly skilled performance for the purpose of improving one’s own
        performance.
2.5   Diagram, explain, and justify offensive and defensive strategies in modified and team sports, games,
        and activities.
2.6   Develop and teach a team game that uses elements of spin or rebound, designated offensive and
        defensive space, a penalty system, and a scoring system.

STANDARD 3
Students assess and maintain a level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

3.1   Assess the components of health-related physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance,
        aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition) by using a scientifically based health-related
        physical fitness assessment.
3.2   Refine individual personal physical fitness goals for each of the five components of health-related
        physical fitness, using research-based criteria.
3.3   Plan and implement a two-week personal physical fitness plan in collaboration with the teacher.
3.4   Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity a minimum of four days each week.
3.5   Assess periodically the attainment of, or progress toward, personal physical fitness goals and make
        necessary adjustments to a personal physical fitness program.
3.6    Participate safely in moderate to vigorous physical activity when conditions are atypical (weather,
travel, injury).

STANDARD 4
Students demonstrate knowledge of physical fitness concepts, principles, and strategies to improve health and performance.


4.1   Develop a two-week personal physical fitness plan specifying the proper warm-up and cool-down
        activities and the principles of exercise for each of the five components of health-related physical
        fitness.
4.2   Identify appropriate physical activities that can be performed if one’s physical fitness program is
        disrupted by inclement weather, travel from home or school, or a minor injury.
4.3   Identify ways of increasing physical activity in routine daily activities.
4.4   Identify and apply basic principles in weight/resistance training and safety practices.
4.5   Explain the effects of nutrition and participation in physical activity on weight control, self-concept,
        and physical performance.
4.6   Explain the different types of conditioning for different physical activities.

STANDARD 5
Students demonstrate and utilize knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
5.1    Abide by the decisions of the officials, accept the outcome of the game, and show appreciation
toward participants.
5.2   Organize and work cooperatively with a group to achieve the goals of the group.
5.3   Identify and evaluate three preferences for lifelong physical activity and determine one’s
        responsibility for developing skills, acquiring knowledge of concepts, and achieving fitness.
Social Interaction
5.4    Identify the contributions of members of a group or team and reward members for accomplishing a
task or goal.
Group Dynamics
5.5   Accept the roles of group members within the structure of a game or activity.
5.6   Describe leadership roles and responsibilities in the context of team games and activities.
5.7   Model support toward individuals of all ability levels and encourage others to be supportive and
        inclusive of all individuals.

Hi
High School
HIGH SCHOOL

The high school course descriptions presented here communicate the essence of the high school physical education experience. The content articulates the knowledge, skills, and confidence students need to maintain meaningful physical activity throughout their lifetime.

The course sequence provides a blueprint for delivering the content in a manner that equips students to make a successful transition from the physical education instructional program to participation in physical activity during adulthood. The adult lifestyle demands that individuals initiate and monitor their own participation in physical activity. Family responsibilities, career demands, and individual choices influence physical activity patterns.

High School Courses 1 and 2 provide the foundation for high school instruction. Students develop proficient movement skills in each area of physical education; they expand their capabilities for independent learning; and they examine practices that allow for sound decision making to enhance successful participation in movement activities.

High School Courses 3 and 4 are electives that provide students with the opportunity to explore a variety of physical activities in search of one they can enjoy and participate in for a lifetime.

Course 4 electives are designed as a continuation of Course 3 and are intended for students who have completed Course 3 and who want an intensive experience in an activity that they may wish to participate in for years to come.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 1

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1   Combine and apply movement patterns, simple to complex, in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and
        individual and dual activities.
1.2   Demonstrate proficient movement skills in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.
1.3   Identify, explain, and apply the skill-related components of balance, reaction time, agility,
        coordination, explosive power, and speed that enhance performance levels in aquatic,
        rhythms/dance, and individual dual activities.
1.4   Explain and demonstrate advanced offensive, defensive, and transition strategies in aquatic and
        individual and dual activities.
1.5   Explain the use of the principles of biomechanics (leverage, force, inertia, rotary motion, opposition,
        and buoyancy); apply the principles to achieve advanced performance in aquatic, rhythms/dance,
        and individual and dual activities; and evaluate the performance based on the use of the principles.
1.6   Examine the physical, emotional, cognitive, and scientific factors that affect performance and explain
        the relationship based on those factors.
1.7   Analyze and evaluate feedback from proprioception, from others, and from the performance of
        complex motor (movement) activities to improve performance in aquatic, rhythms/dance, individual
        activities, and dual activities.
1.8   Analyze and explain which training and conditioning practices have the greatest impact on skill
        acquisition and performance in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.
1.9   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback of skill acquisition and
        performance in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.
1.10 Analyze situations and determine appropriate strategies for improved performance in aquatic,
        rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.
1.11 Assess the effect/outcome of a particular performance strategy in aquatic, rhythms/dance, and
        individual and dual activities.
1.12 Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills.


STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity at least four days each week.
2.2   Participate in enjoyable and challenging physical activities that develop and maintain the five
        components of physical fitness.
2.3   Meet health-related physical fitness standards established by a scientifically based health-related
        fitness assessment.
2.4   Use physical fitness test results to set and adjust goals to improve fitness.
2.5   Improve and maintain physical fitness by adjusting physical activity levels according to the principles
        of exercise.
2.6   Identify the physical fitness requirements of an occupation.
2.7   Develop and implement a one-month personal physical fitness plan.
2.8   Analyze consumer physical fitness products and programs.
2.9   Explain the inherent risks associated with physical activity in extreme environments.
2.10 Identify and list available fitness resources in the community.
2.11 Explain the role of physical activity in the prevention of disease and the reduction of health care
        costs.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Accept personal responsibility to create and maintain a physically and emotionally safe and non-
        threatening environment for physical activity.
3.2   Act independently of negative peer pressure during physical activity.
3.3   Identify and evaluate personal psychological responses to physical activity.
3.4   Describe the enjoyment, self-expression, challenge, and social benefits experienced by achieving
        one’s best in physical activities.
3.5   Develop personal goals to improve one’s performance in physical activities.
Social Interaction
3.6   Discuss the changing psychological and sociological needs of a diverse society in relation to
        physical activity.
3.7   Analyze the role that physical activity plays in social interaction and cooperative opportunities in the
        family and the workplace.
3.8   Recognize the value of physical activity in understanding multiculturalism.
Group Dynamics
3.9   Recognize and evaluate the role of cooperation and positive interactions with others when
        participating in physical activity.
3.10 Identify and utilize the potential strengths of each individual in physical activities.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 2

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1   Combine and apply movement patterns, from simple to complex, in combative, gymnastic/ tumbling,
        and team activities.
1.2   Demonstrate proficient movement skills in combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities.
1.3   Explain the skill-related components of balance, reaction time, agility, coordination, explosive power,
        and speed that enhance performance levels in combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities
        and apply those components in performance.
1.4   Explain and demonstrate advanced offensive, defensive, and transition strategies and tactics in
        combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities.
1.5   Explain the use of the principles of biomechanics (leverage, force, inertia, rotary motion, and
        opposition); apply the principles to achieve advanced performance in combative, gymnastic/
        tumbling, and team activities; and evaluate the performance based on use of the principles.
1.6   Evaluate the relationships of physical, emotional, and cognitive factors affecting individual and team
        performance.
1.7   Analyze and evaluate feedback from proprioception, from others, and from the performance of
        complex motor (movement) activities to improve performance in combative, gymnastics/tumbling,
        and team activities.
1.8   Analyze and explain which training and conditioning practices have the greatest impact on skill
        acquisition and performance in combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities.
1.9   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback from skill acquisition and
        performance in combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities.
1.10 Analyze situations to determine appropriate strategies to use in combative, gymnastic/tumbling, and
        team activities.
1.11 Assess the effect/outcome of a particular performance strategy used in combative,
        gymnastic/tumbling, and team activities.
1.12 Evaluate independent learning of movement skills.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity at least four days each week.
2.2   Participate in challenging physical fitness activities using the principles of exercise to meet individual
        needs and interests.
2.3   Identify and achieve levels of excellence in physical fitness that enhance physical and mental
        performance beyond the standards established by scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessments.
2.4   Assess levels of physical fitness and adjust physical activity to accommodate changes in age,
        growth, and development.
2.5   Justify the use of particular physical activities to achieve desired fitness goals.
2.6   Develop and describe a physical fitness plan that enhances personal health and performance in
        future leisure and workplace activities.
2.7   Develop and implement an appropriate personal physical fitness program for a family or community
        member.
2.8   Explain how to evaluate consumer physical fitness products and programs.
2.9   Identify and evaluate ergogenic aids that claim to enhance body composition, appearance, physical
        fitness, and performance.
2.10 Evaluate the availability and quality of fitness resources in the community.
2.11 Use and analyze scientifically based data and protocols to assess oneself on the five components of
        health-related physical fitness.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Participate in physical activities for personal enjoyment.
3.2   Examine and explain the ways in which personal characteristics, performance styles, and
        preferences for activities may change over a lifetime.
3.3   Evaluate the psychological benefits derived from regular participation in physical activity.
3.4   Explain and analyze the role of individual attitude, motivation, and determination in achieving
        personal satisfaction from challenging physical activities.
3.5   Evaluate and refine personal goals to improve performance in physical activities.
Social Interaction
3.6   Identify the effects of individual differences, such as age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status,
        and culture, on preferences for and participation in physical activity.
3.7    Explain how to select and modify physical activities to allow for participation by younger children, the
elderly, and individuals with special needs.
Group Dynamics
3.8   Identify leadership skills, perform planned leadership assignments, and assume spontaneous
        leadership roles.
3.9   Encourage others to be supportive and inclusive of individuals of all ability levels.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3A
Adventure/Outdoor Activities

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 3A.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1   Demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in two or more adventure/outdoor activities.
1.2   Identify the characteristics and critical elements of a highly skilled performance in adventure/outdoor
        activities and demonstrate them.
1.3   Apply previously learned movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of the
        motor skills required for successful participation in adventure/outdoor pursuits and activities.
1.4   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of adventure/outdoor activities.
1.5   List the safety equipment required for participation in outdoor pursuits and adventures; describe and
        demonstrate the use of such equipment.
1.6   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in adventure/outdoor activities.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Participate in adventure/outdoor activities that improve health-related physical fitness.
2.2   Analyze the effects of adventure/outdoor activities on a personal physical fitness program and
        personal levels of health-related physical fitness.
2.3   Improve or maintain physical fitness by adjusting physical activity levels according to the principles
        of exercise.
2.4   Explain the relationship between participation in adventure/outdoor activities and health.

STANDARD 3STANDARD
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Compare and contrast the effective leadership skills used in adventure/outdoor activities and those
        used in other physical activities.
3.2   Develop personal goals to improve performance in adventure/outdoor activities.
3.3   Identify and analyze adventure/outdoor physical activities that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.4   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in adventure/outdoor activities
        throughout a lifetime.
Social Interaction
3.5   Explain how to select and modify adventure/outdoor activities to allow for participation by younger
        children, the elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.6    Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of
adventure/outdoor activities.
Group Dynamics
3.7   Accept and perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in
        adventure/outdoor activities.
3.8   Analyze the role that cooperation and leadership play in adventure/outdoor activities.
3.9   Engage in adventure/outdoor activities both in school and outside school.

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3B
Aerobic Activities

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School
Course 3B.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1    Demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in two or more aerobic activities, selecting one or more
  from each of the following categories:

Category 1        Category 2
Aerobic dance     Cross-country skiing
Running    Cycling
Skating    Rowing
Swimming    Triathlon
    Walking

1.2   Identify the characteristics and critical elements of a highly skilled performance in aerobic activities
        and demonstrate them.
1.3   Apply previously learned movement concepts to the learning and development of the motor skills
        required for successful participation in aerobic activities.
1.4   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of aerobic activities.
1.5   List the safety equipment required for participation in aerobic activities; describe and demonstrate
        the use of such equipment.
1.6   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in aerobic activities.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.
2.1   Identify and achieve a personal level of excellence in physical fitness.
2.2   Engage independently in physical activity that increases aerobic capacity.
2.3   Evaluate goal-setting and other strategies as effective tools for maintaining and increasing
        adherence to a physical activity program.
2.4   Measure health-related physical fitness periodically and adjust physical activity to achieve fitness
        goals.
2.5   Identify and explain the positive effects of participation in aerobic activity on personal health.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Engage independently in aerobic activities.
3.2   Develop personal goals to improve performance in aerobic activities.
3.3   Compare and contrast the effective leadership skills used in aerobic activities and those used in
        other physical activities.
3.4   Identify and analyze aerobic activities that enhance both personal enjoyment and the challenge.
3.5   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in aerobic activities throughout a
        lifetime.
Social Interaction
3.6   Invite others to join in aerobic activity.
3.7   Explain how to select and modify aerobic activities to allow for participation by younger children, the
        elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.8   Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of aerobic
        activities.
Group Dynamics
3.9   Accept and perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in aerobic
        activities.
3.10 Analyze the role that cooperation and leadership play in aerobic activities.
3.11 Engage in aerobic activities both in school and outside school.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3C
Individual and Dual Activities

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School
Course 3C.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies essential to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1     Demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in two or more individual and dual activities, selecting
 one or more from each of the following categories:
    
Individual    Dual
Archery     Badminton 
Cycling    Handball
Golf    Racquetball
Gymnastics/Tumbling    Squash
Skating    Tennis
Skiing    Two-Player Volleyball
Surfing   
Yoga   
 
1.2   Identify the characteristics and critical elements of a highly skilled performance in individual and dual
        activities and demonstrate them.
1.3   Apply previously learned movement concepts to the learning and development of the motor skills
        required for successful participation in individual and dual activities.
1.4   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of individual and dual activities.             
1.5   List the safety equipment required for participation in individual and dual activities; describe and
        demonstrate the use of such equipment.
1.6   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in individual and dual activities.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Meet physical fitness standards that exceed those of a scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessment.
2.2   Participate in individual and dual activities that improve or maintain health-related physical fitness.
2.3   Analyze the effects of individual and dual activities on a personal physical fitness program
        and personal levels of health-related physical fitness.
2.4   Improve or maintain physical fitness by adjusting physical activity levels according to the principles
        of exercise.
2.5   Explain the relationship between participation in individual and in dual activities and health.
2.6   Demonstrate the ability to develop criteria and analyze factors to consider in the purchase of fitness
        products and programs related to individual and dual activities.
2.7    Develop and implement a month-long personal physical fitness plan that includes individual and dual
activities.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Compare and contrast the effective leadership skills used in individual and dual activities and those
        used in other physical activities.
3.2   Develop personal goals to improve performance in individual and dual activities.
3.3   Identify and analyze individual and dual physical activities that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.4   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in individual and dual activities
        throughout a lifetime.
Social Interaction
3.5   Explain how to select and modify individual and dual activities to allow for participation by younger
        children, the elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.6    Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of individual
and dual activities.
Group Dynamics
3.7   Accept and perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in individual and
        dual activities.
3.8   Analyze the role that cooperation and leadership play in individual and dual activities.
3.9   Engage in individual and dual activities both in school and outside school.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3D
Dance

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 3D.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1    Demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in two or more dance activities, selecting one or more
From each of the following categories:

Category 1    Category 2
Ballet    Modern
Folk    Social
Jazz    Square

1.2   Identify the characteristics and critical elements of a highly skilled performance in dance activities
        and demonstrate them.
1.3   Apply previously learned movement concepts to the learning and development of the motor skills
        required for successful participation in dance activities.
1.4   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of dance activities.
1.5   List the safety equipment and facilities required for participation in dance activities; describe and 
        demonstrate the use of such equipment and facilities.
1.6   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in dance activities.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Meet physical fitness standards that exceed those of a scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessment.
2.2   Participate in dance activities that improve or maintain personal levels of health-related physical
        fitness.
2.3   Analyze the effects of dance activities on a personal physical fitness program and personal levels of
        health-related physical fitness.
2.4   Improve or maintain one’s physical fitness by adjusting physical activity levels according to the
        principles of exercise.
2.5   Explain the relationship between participation in dance activities and health.
2.6   Demonstrate the ability to develop criteria and analyze factors to consider in the purchase of
        products and programs related to dance activities.
2.7   Develop and implement a month-long personal physical fitness plan that includes dance activities.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Compare and contrast the effective leadership skills used in dance activities and those used in other
        physical activities.
3.2   Develop personal goals to improve performance in dance activities.
3.3   Identify and analyze dance activities that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.4   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in dance activities throughout a
        lifetime.
Social Interaction
3.5   Explain how to select and modify dance activities to allow for participation by younger children, the
        elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.6    Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of dance
activities.
Group Dynamics
3.7   Accept and perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in dance activities.
3.8   Analyze the role that cooperation and leadership play in dance activities.
3.9   Engage in dance activities both in school and outside school.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3E
Aquatic Activities

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 3E.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1    Demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in two or more aquatic activities, selecting one or more
From each of the following categories:

Category 1    Category 2
Diving    Life Guarding
Kayaking/ Canoeing/ Rowing    Scuba Diving
Snorkeling    Synchronized swimming
Swimming    Water polo

1.2   Identify the characteristics and critical elements of a highly skilled performance in aquatic activities
        and demonstrate them.
1.3   Apply previously learned movement concepts to the learning and development of motor-skills
        required for successful participation in aquatic activities.
1.4   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of aquatic activities.
1.5   List the safety equipment required for participation in aquatic activities; describe and demonstrate
        the use of such equipment.
1.6   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in aquatic activities.      
1.7   Identify and practice the safety skills necessary for entering swimming pools, lakes, rivers, and
        oceans (e.g., walking, jumping, falling, and diving).
1.8   Demonstrate and explain basic water rescue with and without equipment.
1.9   Demonstrate and explain basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Meet physical fitness standards that exceed those of a scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessment.
2.2   Participate in aquatic activities that improve or maintain health-related physical fitness.
2.3   Analyze the effects of participation in aquatic activities on levels of health-related physical fitness
        activities and a personal fitness program.
2.4   Improve or maintain one’s physical fitness by adjusting physical activity levels according to the
        principles of exercise.
2.5   Explain the relationship between participation in aquatic activities and indicators of good health.
2.6   Demonstrate the ability to develop criteria and analyze factors to consider in the purchase of
        products and programs related to aquatic activities.
2.7   Develop and implement a month-long personal physical fitness plan that includes aquatic activities.
2.8   Explain how aquatic activities contribute to the development and maintenance of health-related
        physical fitness.
2.9   Create and implement aquatic programs that improve health-related physical fitness.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Compare and contrast the effective leadership skills used in aquatic activities and those used in
        other physical activities.
3.2   Develop personal goals to improve performance in aquatic activities.
3.3   Identify and analyze aquatic activities that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.4   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in aquatic activities throughout a
        lifetime.
3.5   Identify and demonstrate personal responsibilities for safety and hygiene in the aquatics setting.
Social Interaction
3.6   Explain how to select and modify aquatic activities to allow for participation by younger children, the
        elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.7    Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of aquatic
activities.
Group Dynamics
3.8   Accept and perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in aquatic
        activities.
3.9   Analyze the role that cooperation and leadership play in aquatic activities.
3.10 Engage in aquatic activities both in school and outside school.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 3F
Weight Training and Fitness

High School Courses 1 and 2 are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 3F.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1   Explain the principles of biomechanics of first-, second-, and third-class levers and apply those
        principles to a variety of lifting techniques.
1.2   Observe and analyze the lifting techniques of another person (or oneself through video) and write
        an analysis of the performance.
1.3   Demonstrate proper spotting techniques for all lifts and exercises that require spotting.
1.4   Observe and analyze the techniques of another person (or oneself through video) performing a
        pylometric exercise and write an analysis of the performance.
1.5   Measure and assess multiple performances of another person in the following areas: balance,
        reaction time, agility, coordination, power, and speed.
1.6   Identify and apply the principles of biomechanics necessary for the safe and successful performance
        of weight lifting.
1.7   List the safety equipment required for participation in weight training; describe and demonstrate the
        use of such equipment.
1.8   Demonstrate independent learning of movement skills in weight training.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Establish a set of personal physical fitness goals, using the principles of training, and create a
        strength-training and conditioning program.
2.2   Identify the prime mover muscles, antagonistic muscles, and stabilizer muscles for each of the major
        weight-training exercises.
2.3   Assess multiple performances of another person in the following areas: muscular strength, muscular
        endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and flexibility.
2.4   Explain how the principles of biomechanics, muscle development, gender, age, training experience,
        training technique, and specificity affect performance related to strength training.
2.5   Demonstrate and explain the techniques and concepts of three types of weight-training programs.
2.6   Demonstrate and explain the concepts of two different conditioning programs.
2.7   Develop and use a personal physical fitness log to record all workout data on a daily basis.
2.8   Meet increasingly higher levels of speed, strength, power, and endurance.
2.9   Meet physical fitness standards that exceed those of scientifically based health-related fitness
        assessments.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Display safe and responsible behavior while training.
3.2   Describe the role of motivation in physical activity.
3.3   Describe how the perception of effort and quality is a personal assessment and describe the role
        that perception plays in achieving fitness goals.
3.4   Develop personal goals to improve performance in weight training and fitness.
3.5   Identify and analyze weight-training and fitness activities that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.6   Evaluate the risks and safety factors that may affect participation in weight training and fitness
        throughout a lifetime.
Social Interaction
3.7   Explain how to select and modify weight-training and fitness activities to allow for participation by
        younger children, the elderly, and individuals with special needs.
3.8    Analyze the role of social interaction in the successful participation in and enjoyment of weight
training and fitness activities.
Group Dynamics
3.9   Assist others in the achievement of their fitness goals.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 4A
Advanced Adventure/Outdoor Activities

High School Courses 1, 2, and 3A are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 4A.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1   Demonstrate expertise in one adventure/outdoor activity.
1.2   Analyze and evaluate the interrelationship of the principles of biomechanics and the use of
        strategies in high-level performance.
1.3   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback from skill acquisition and
        performance of adventure/outdoor activities.
1.4   Practice adventure/outdoor activities in real-world settings.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Achieve a level of fitness that improves health and performance and provides opportunities for
        enjoyment and challenge in an adventure/outdoor activity.
2.2    Design a personal physical fitness program to be completed in a home or gym and that will be  
consistent with the demands of an adventure/outdoor activity.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Evaluate changes in self-responsibility as skill levels in adventure/outdoor activities improve.
3.2   Set personal goals for improved performance and enjoyment of adventure/outdoor activities.
Group Dynamics
3.3   Perform and evaluate planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in high-level
        adventure/outdoor activities.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 4B
Advanced Aerobic Activities

High School Courses 1, 2, and 3B are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School Course 4B.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1      Demonstrate expertise in two or more of the following aerobic activities, preferably one from each 
  category:

Category 1    Category 2
Aerobic dance        Cross-country skiing
Running    Cycling
Skating    Rowing
Swimming    Triathlon
    Walking

1.2   Analyze and evaluate the interrelationship of the principles of biomechanics and the use of
        strategies in high-level performance.
1.3   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback from skill acquisition and
        performance.
1.4   Practice aerobic activities in real-world settings.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Identify and achieve levels of personal excellence in health-related physical fitness.
2.2   Adjust personal fitness goals on the basis of fitness assessment measures to improve performance
        in aerobic activities.
2.3    Design a personal physical fitness program in preparation for the demands of a competitive aerobic
activities.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Demonstrate a physically active lifestyle that provides for enjoyment and challenge through aerobic
        activity.
3.2   Identify the qualities of aerobic activity that enhance personal enjoyment.
3.3   Evaluate changes in self-responsibility as skill levels in aerobic activities improve.
3.4   Set personal goals for improved performance and enjoyment of aerobic activities.
Group Dynamics
3.5   Perform and evaluate planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in high-level
        aerobic activities.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 4C
Advanced Individual and Dual Activities

High School Courses 1, 2, and 3C are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School
Course 4C.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1    Demonstrate expertise in two or more of the following individual and dual activities,
preferably one from each category:

Individual    Dual
Archery    Badminton
Cycling    Handball
Golf    Racquetball
Gymnastics/Tumbling    Squash
Skating    Tennis
Skiing    Two-Player volleyball
Surfing   
Yoga   

1.2   Analyze and evaluate the interrelationship of the principles of biomechanics and the use of
        strategies in high-level performance in individual and dual activities.
1.3   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback from skill acquisition and
        performance.
1.4   Practice individual and dual activities in real-world settings.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Develop personal physical fitness standards that exceed those of a scientifically based health-
        related physical fitness assessment.
2.2   Demonstrate the ability to develop criteria and analyze factors to consider in the purchase of
        products and programs related to individual and dual activities.
2.3   Achieve a level of fitness that improves health and performance and provides opportunities for
        enjoyment and challenge in individual and dual activities.
2.4    Design a personal physical fitness program to be completed in a home or gym and that will be
consistent with the demands of a selected individual or dual activity.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.

Self-Responsibility
3.1   Evaluate changes in self-responsibility as skill levels in individual and dual activities improve.
3.2   Set personal goals for improved performance and enjoyment of individual and dual activities.
Group Dynamics
3.3   Perform and evaluate planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in high-level
        Individual and dual activities.


HIGH SCHOOL COURSE 4D
Advanced Dance

High School Courses 1, 2, and 3D are designed to be completed before a student enrolls in High School
Course 4D.

STANDARD 1
Students demonstrate knowledge of and competency in motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies needed to perform a variety of physical activities.

1.1    Demonstrate expertise in two or more of the following dance activities, preferably one from each
category:

Category 1    Category 2
Ballet    Modern
Folk    Social
Jazz    Square

1.2   Analyze and evaluate the interrelationship of the principles of biomechanics and the use of
        strategies in high-level performance in dance activities.
1.3   Create or modify practice/training plans based on evaluative feedback from skill acquisition and
        performance.
1.4   Practice dance in real-world settings.
1.5   Demonstrate skills in choreography.

STANDARD 2
Students achieve a level of physical fitness for health and performance while demonstrating knowledge of fitness concepts, principles, and strategies.

2.1   Achieve a level of fitness that improves health and performance and provides opportunities for
        enjoyment and challenge in a dance activity.
2.2   Design a personal physical fitness program to be completed in a home or gym and that will be
        consistent with the demands of a dance activity.
2.3   Adjust personal fitness goals on the basis of fitness assessment measures to improve performance
        in dance activities.

STANDARD 3
Students demonstrate knowledge of psychological and sociological concepts, principles, and strategies that apply to the learning and performance of physical activity.
Self-Responsibility
3.1   Evaluate changes in self-responsibility as skill levels in dance activities improve.
3.2   Set personal goals for improved performance and enjoyment of dance activities.
Group Dynamics
3.3   Perform planned and spontaneous leadership assignments and roles in high-level dance activities.




GLOSSARY

adapted physical education. A physical education program designed to meet the unique needs of an individual with a disability who is unable to fully participate in the general physical education program.

adventure/outdoor activities. Physical activities centered in natural settings. Examples include orienteering, backpacking, hiking, rope activities, canoeing, cycling, skating, and rock climbing.

aerobic activity. Exercise that can be performed for a long duration because the energy required can be provided by the burning of fuel, which normally occurs in muscle cells in the presence of oxygen. Aerobic activity may help control body weight, reduce the percentage of body fat, improve the circulatory function and respiratory functions, and reduce blood pressure. Examples include aerobic dance, cycling, jogging, power walking, in-line skating, step aerobics, kickboxing, and super circuit.

anaerobic activity. Exercise of short duration that is performed at a more strenuous level, so increased respiration and heart rate cannot provide sufficient oxygen to the muscle cells. Anaerobic activity is used
to build muscle mass and to improve one’s ability to move quickly and to deliver force. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, weight training, curl-ups, gymnastics, and some team activities, such
as softball and football.

base of support. The area of the base or foundation that supports the body. The base of support may include one or more body parts and the distance between them. The ability to stabilize the body is directly
proportional to the area of the base of support.
For example, if the two feet are close together, the base of support is narrow and stability is limited. If the two feet are separated by some distance, the base of support is increased and provides more stability.

basic resistance principles. Resistance is the weight or force that is used to oppose a motion. Resistance training increases muscle strength by pitting the muscles against a weight, such as a dumbbell or barbell. The type of lift; intensity, volume, and variety of training; progressive overload; rest; and recovery constitute the basic principles of resistance training.

biomechanics. The study of human movement and how such movement is influenced by gravity, friction, and the laws of motion. It involves the analysis of force, including muscle force that produces movements
and impact force that may cause injuries. It explains why motor skills are performed in explicit ways in order to improve efficiency and effectiveness.

body composition. The proportion of fat-free mass (e.g., muscle, bone, vital organs, and tissues) to fat mass in the body.

body management. Basic skills focusing on the ability to control the body and body parts in actions such as those involving traveling, balancing, rolling, and supporting body weight

combative activities. A group of physical activities that utilize basic combatives––pulling, pushing, defiances, stands, and guards. Some examples include wrestling, fencing, boxing, kickboxing, martial arts, and self-defense.

components of health-related physical fitness. Muscle strength, muscle endurance, aerobic capacity, flexibility, and body composition.

cool-down exercises. Five to ten minutes of light to moderate physical activity. Cool down exercises help the body recover from exercise. This process maintains blood pressure, helps enhance venous return, and prevents blood from pooling in the muscles.

core muscles. The abdominal, back, hip, and pelvic floor muscles.

dehydration. The loss of water and important blood salts, such as potassium and sodium, that are essential for vital organ functions.

dual activities. Physical activities that require two participants. Examples include tennis, racquetball, and badminton.

ergogenic aids. Substances, devices, or practices that enhance an individual’s energy use, production, or recovery.

even-beat locomotor skills. Examples include walking, running, hopping, and jumping.

flexibility. The ability to move joints of the body through a normal range of motion.

F.I.T.T. principles/concepts. The frequency, intensity, time, and type of physical activities are interdependent principles for gaining and maintaining physical fitness.

folk dance. A dance that has been developed through the traditions of culture and has been passed down from generation to generation.

frequency. A principle of training that establishes how often to exercise.

fundamental movement skills. An organized series of basic movements that involve the combination of movement patterns of two or more body segments. They may be categorized as stability, locomotor, or manipulative movements.

group dynamics. The interactions and interrelationships of people in a group.

health. Optimal well-being that contributes to the quality of life. It is more than freedom from disease and illness. Optimal health includes high-level mental, social, emotional, spiritual, and physical wellness
within the limits of one’s heredity and personal abilities.

health-related physical fitness. Consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship to good health: body composition, aerobic capacity, flexibility, muscle endurance, and muscle strength.

hyperextension. Greater-than-normal stretching or straightening of an extended limb.

hyperflexion. Bending a joint beyond its normal range of motion.

indicators of increased capacity. Responses of the body due to changes in the intensity of, duration of, frequency of, or time spent participating in physical activity. Indicators may consist of changes in muscle fatigue, breathing, and heart rate.

individual activity. Physical activities that require only one participant. Examples include weight training, yoga, archery, and jogging.

individuality. A principle of training that takes into account the particular needs and abilities of the individual for whom it is designed.

intensity. A principle of training that establishes how hard to exercise.

large-muscle groups. Muscles that work together and have a large mass relative to other muscle groups in the body. Examples of large-muscle groups are the muscles in the arms, back, and legs.
line dance. A dance in which individuals line up without partners and follow a choreographed pattern of steps, usually to country music.

locomotor movements. The basic patterns used to travel (walking, running, leaping, hopping, jumping, galloping, sliding, and skipping).

long-handled implement. A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The long handle positions the hand some distance away from the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a hockey stick, bat, tennis racquet, and lacrosse stick.

manipulative movements. Movements in which skills are developed while using an implement. Examples include throwing, catching, punching, kicking, trapping, rolling, dribbling, striking, and volleying.

moderate physical activity. Moderate-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend while, for example, walking
briskly, dancing, swimming, or bicycling on level terrain. A person should feel some exertion but should be able to carry on a conversation comfortably during the activity.

modified/lead-up game. Active games that involve the use of two or more of the sport skills, rules, or procedures used in playing the official sport.

movement concepts. The ideas used to modify or enrich the range and effectiveness of the skills employed. They involve learning how, where, and with what the body moves.

movement patterns. An organized series of related movements.

muscle endurance. The ability to contract the muscles many times without tiring or the ability to hold one contraction for an extended period.

muscle strength. The ability of a muscle to exert force. Strength is measured as the amount of force a muscle can produce.

nonlocomotor movements. Movement that is organized around the axis of the body, including bending and stretching, pushing and pulling, raising and lowering, twisting and turning, shaking, bouncing, circling,
and swinging.

overload. A principle of training that establishes a minimum threshold and requires one to exceed that threshold to benefit from the chosen physical activity.

perceived exertion index. A way of rating how hard one feels the body is working during physical activity; it is based on physical sensations experienced, including increased heart rate, increased respiration or breathing rate, increased sweating, and muscle fatigue.

physical activity. Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and that substantially increases energy expenditure, including exercise, sport, dance, and other movement forms.

physical fitness. A positive state of wellbeing with a low risk of premature health problems and with the energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. It is influenced by regular, vigorous physical
activity, genetic makeup, and nutritional adequacy.

plyometric exercise. A muscular activity that involves an eccentric contraction (i.e., muscle is lengthened) of a muscle, followed immediately by a concentric contraction (muscle is shortened) of the same muscle. Plyometric exercises are often used to increase power.

principle of overload. The principle of exercise that states that placing a greater-than normal physical demand on the body will require the body to adapt to the greater load by increasing the body’s efficiency and strength.

principles of training/principles of exercise.
Principles to follow in planning an exercise program to effect physiological changes in the human body related to health and performance: frequency, individuality, intensity, mode/type, overload, progression,
regularity, specificity, and time.

progression. A principle of training that establishes increases in the amount and intensity of physical activity needed to provide improvements over periods of time.

proprioception. The ability to sense the position, location, and orientation of the body.

rebound principles. Newton’s Third Law: An object, when struck, will rebound in the opposite direction with the same amount of force with which it was hit.

recovery rate. The time necessary for an exercise-induced elevated heart rate to return to a normal resting heart rate.

regularity. A principle of training that establishes exercise on a regular schedule. A pattern of physical activity is regular if activities are performed most days of the week, preferably daily; if moderate intensity
activities are performed five or more days of the week; or if vigorous intensity activities are performed three or more days of the week.

resistance principle. The principle that the use of an implement, a device, or the body weight as a resistance can enhance some physical characteristic, such as strength or muscular endurance.

rhythmic skills. Skills that develop an understanding of and a feeling for the elements
of rhythm. Examples of physical activities that allow students to express themselves rhythmically include creative movement, folk dance, square dance, and interpretive dance.

short-handled implement. A piece of equipment used in performing motor skills. The short handle positions the hand close to the surface of the implement that comes in contact with the ball. Some examples include a racquetball racket, a paddle used in paddle games, and a modified lacrosse
stick.

specificity. A principle of training that establishes a particular kind of activity for each component of physical fitness.

stability movements. Stability reflects balance and equilibrium, which are important components in performing many motor skills. Stability movements include those that are vital for the body to maintain balance while moving. Examples include moving the arms while walking or running and lowering one’s center of gravity when stopping quickly.

strategies. Decisions made by individuals or a team about the overall play of the game.

striking pattern. A fundamental motor skill in which an object is hit, with or without an implement.

tactics. Individual movement of players or teams to accomplish an immediate goal or accommodate a situation. Tactics take place within the game as an ongoing part of game play and include decisions an
individual makes about when, why, and how to respond to a particular situation.

target heart-rate zone. A safe range of activity intensity that can be used to enhance the level of aerobic capacity.

time. A principle of training that establishes the amount of time for each exercise period.

travel. Movement of the body from one point to another.

type. A principle of training that establishes the specific activity to use or the muscles to target during an exercise period.

uneven-beat locomotor skill. Examples include galloping, sliding, skipping, and leaping.

vigorous physical activity. Vigorous-intensity physical activity generally requires sustained, rhythmic movements and refers to a level of effort a healthy individual might expend while, for example, jogging, participating in high-impact aerobic dancing, swimming continuous laps, or bicycling uphill. Vigorous-intensity physical activity may be intense enough to result in a significant increase in heart and respiration rate.

volley. To strike a ball upward.

warm-up exercises. Low-intensity exercises that prepare the muscular/skeletal system and heart and lungs (cardio respiratory system) for high-intensity physical activity.

weight-bearing activities. Any activity in which one’s feet and legs carry their own weight. Examples include walking, running, tennis, and aerobic dancing.

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